Ever since mankind inhabited earth, he has always been on the move, in search of safer places or water, initially on foot. Walking is the earliest and most dependable mode of transport.
Then man learned to tame animals for food and to ride them for hunting and further movement. Around 3500 B.C the wheel was invented, the discovery of which revolutionized forms of transport. It remains till today the most beneficial discovery in the field of transport. Combining the horse to the wheel is down the millennia, the cheapest mode of land transport.
In their search for safer lands, man encountered rivers and streams that had to be crossed. Necessity gave rise to dugouts transportation, rafts transportation and canoes transportation often made of hollowed tree trunks. Thus began the age of water transport. The Phoenicians are considered the best sailors and forerunners of all ships that sail on sea. Slowly well-laid roads made their appearance and by 1662, a carriage drawn by horses was being used as public transport complete with scheduled stops and fares.
The discovery of the steam engine in 1769 soon led to steam boats in 1787 and later to steam powered road vehicles.
In 1790 the bicycle made its first hesitant appearance and throughout the succeeding decades it under went many transformations to become the bicycle, as we know it today.
In 1807 the first passenger steamboat came into existence making a historic trip from New York City to Albany in 32 hours with an average speed of 5miles/hour. In 1814 the first steam powered railroad locomotive began operating. In 1862 arrived the gasoline engine automobile. From then on the inventions in transport were fast. By 1903 the first airplane was successfully flown by the Wright Brothers. 1940 saw the advent of helicopters, 1947 the first jet was flown and in 1987 a space shuttle was launched.
There are various kinds of transportation that include:
In this also have different types of transports, which include air, water, road, rail, pipelines, space, cable and more. This transportation field can be broadly separated into three categories; those are infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transportation is most essential because it allows trade between people and it is also important for the progress of civilization.
Infrastructure is the permanent thing or place that is necessary for transport and this infrastructure can be the roads, railways, airways, waters, canals, airports, railway station, bus station, terminals, seaports and more. Terminals are necessary to interchange the passengers and goods. It is also necessary for maintenance.
Vehicles can be of any type, which are travel on different networks. Various types of vehicles include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, helicopters, airplane and more.
Operations pacts with the way the vehicles are operated. The procedures set for this purpose includes:
In this transportation industry, operations and properties of infrastructure can be either public or private.
Transportation has lot of impact on the society through various modes of transport. Particularly there are three major impacts of transportation in the society which are:
Transport is one of the major sectors that contribute to economy of any country. This sector helps in developing economically as well as it impacts on welfare of population in society. In a society economic growth majorly depended on increasing both capacity and rationality of transport. In community economic development can be measured with increase of major factors such as productivity, employment, business activity, property values, investment and tax revenues. If we consider aggregate level, then transportation can reduce costs in most of the economic sectors only when it is efficient. But in-case of inefficient transportation costs will be increased. Economic impacts on transportation will be in three ways that is direct impact, indirect impact and induced impact.
Transport planning in new infrastructure will be allowing in high level of utilization but less impact of it. In planning of transport it involves various factors that are evaluation, assessment, design and also siting of transport facilities. Rational planning has been followed in planning of transport. It defines goals and objectives as well as identifies problems, generation of alternatives, evaluation of these alternatives then a plan will be developed. It is much easy to foresee future transport with the help of transport forecasting.
Transportation has very worse effect on environment because it will use energy and that burns most of the world’s petroleum. Apart from this it will create air pollution with nitrous oxide and which will be contributing to global warming with emission of carbon-di-oxide. In most of the developed countries, rules were passed in environmental regulations to reduce individual vehicles emissions. While other environmental impacts of transport system involves traffic congestion and automobile oriented urban sprawl.
Private transport is the main issue to the owner of the vehicle, who operates the vehicle themselves. Whereas For public transport and freight transport, the export and imports are done through private courier services or by governments. The consignment and vehicles may be owned and operations done by the same company, otherwise there willbe different entities. Generally, many of the countries are having their own airline and railway services. Since the 1980s, many of these have been privatized.
A Lesson Plan is a plan designed by the teacher to introduce a new topic to children, that includes the method of teaching, the topics covered, activities undertaken and aids used to teach the child about a particular subject. A Transportation lesson plan for Kindergarten students would typically include introduction of the topic transportation by asking the children to list the types of transport they are familiar with, by asking them to draw their favorite means of transport. Teach them simple sentences like say a car transportation, a bus transportation etc. Sing a rhyme of vehicles like Uncle Tom’s red engine, etc.
The middle school transportation lesson plan’s objective would be to discuss major types of transportation for trade and personal use. Explain how goods can be transported from place to place referring as aid to a map charting major transportation routes.
A Transportation lesson plan for senior students would include identification of modes of transportation and communication among people, goods and ideas from place to place, students learn the advantages and disadvantages of various modes of transport with impact on the environment as a major course of study. They also study how global interdependence and traditional modes of transport are affected by modern means of transportation and communication. As an assignment they speculate and write how global economy is affected by transportation.
Transportation Activities are a major mode of learning especially in Kindergarten students. Transportation activities are interesting and fosters a love for creative activity. Transportation activities for kindergarten students include coloring posters of various types of transportation in the colors they like. Crafts using waste materials like Styrofoam egg cartons, cardboard boxes are used to make different means of transport, using colored paper to make origami boats. An idea for crafts from the Mama and William Crafts for Kindergarten kids is to use an entire load of primary color foam shapes to make a train. Two medium and one small square on the top for the engine, two medium square for a coach, small circles for wheels and graduated circles for smoke plume. All connected by thread and stuck on a narrow piece of black cardboard. This activity is also helps to practice shapes, colors and sizes for pre-schoolers. Other transportation activities include singing rhymes and songs about cars, buses and trains, pasting transportation photos etc.
Transportation services essentially carry people and goods from one place to another. With manufacturing and distribution spread worldwide transportation services have become vital part of the economy. Container transport services by ship, air, rail and road routes to transfer finished goods and raw materials to their destinations have become necessary in this age of global interdependence. Refrigerated trucks to carry perishables,, flatbed trailers to carry vehicles, trucks to carry goods and packing and moving services are all a part of transportation. Warehouses to hold goods, documentation services are also part of transportation services.
The Commercial Orbital Transportation Service is a NASA program to implement the commercial delivery of crew and cargo to the International Space Station.
The most common modes in usage of transport are moving of passengers and freight. Other uses of transport are strategic and tactical planning relocation by armed forces or civilian mobility construction or emergency equipment.
Public and private are two types of transportation. Public transports are limited services where as private are unlimited services depending on passenger desire. It offer great flexibility, but has less capacity and a good environment impact. Passenger may be travel for regular basis for business, leisure or migration.
The automobile and mass transit dominated the short distance travel by public. The latter consists of busses in rural and small population cities, enlarge with suburban rail, cable cars and high-speed transportation in big cities. The automobile, trains and aircrafts are used for long distance transport. To travel between continents and longest distance predominantly used air transportation. Since all passengers transport normally starts from one mode and ends with foot walking, therefore all passenger transport can be considered as intermodal. Public transport may involve different modes at a transport hub such as bus or railway stations.
In public transport spectrum buses or taxis can be found. Bus transport is cheaper as compared to taxis but they are less flexible than taxis. Comparing with both modes demand-responsive transport offering flexibility while, remaining reasonably priced.
Some passengers in international travel restricted for legislation and visa purposes.
This type of transportation is a key in the value chain including manufacturing. By increased specialization and globalization, manufacturing is located further away from use of resource and high demand for transport. While all modes of transport use cargo transport, therefore it is difficult to choose between them.
Generally, all the shipments are manually loaded and unloaded into the deck of the ship or car; packing of shipment allows easily to handling and transfer between modes automatically, and the systematic sizes of the shipment will allows you to increase the scale in gain of national economy in vehicle operation. Since 1950s, this type of transportation has been one of the key factors in international market and globalization.
The most common bulk transports handled roughly without deterioration are petrol, oil, c ore, coal and cereals. Because of the quality of the product, massive quantities can be handled quickly and efficiently. By using pipeline liquid products with enough capacity can also transported.
The way bulk amount of product is air freight but less than 1% compared to other transports. The amount of volume transport through airline is 40% of the value.
The principals such as delay and just-in-time within the value chain, resulting in willingness pay high amount for quick delivery of components or high value/weight ratio became important. Electronics and cloths are most common items sent through air excluding mail