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Ever since mankind inhabited earth, he has always been on the move, in search of safer places or water, initially on foot. Walking is the earliest and most dependable mode of transport.

Then man learned to tame animals for food and to ride them for hunting and further movement. Around 3500 B.C the wheel was invented, the discovery of which revolutionized forms of transport. It remains till today the most beneficial discovery in the field of transport. Combining the horse to the wheel is down the millennia, the cheapest mode of land transport.

In their search for safer lands, man encountered rivers and streams that had to be crossed. Necessity gave rise to dugouts transportation, rafts transportation and canoes transportation often made of hollowed tree trunks. Thus began the age of water transport. The Phoenicians are considered the best sailors and forerunners of all ships that sail on sea. Slowly well-laid roads made their appearance and by 1662, a carriage drawn by horses was being used as public transport complete with scheduled stops and fares.

The discovery of the steam engine in 1769 soon led to steam boats in 1787 and later to steam powered road vehicles.

In 1790 the bicycle made its first hesitant appearance and throughout the succeeding decades it under went many transformations to become the bicycle, as we know it today.

In 1807 the first passenger steamboat came into existence making a historic trip from New York City to Albany in 32 hours with an average speed of 5miles/hour. In 1814 the first steam powered railroad locomotive began operating. In 1862 arrived the gasoline engine automobile. From then on the inventions in transport were fast. By 1903 the first airplane was successfully flown by the Wright Brothers. 1940 saw the advent of helicopters, 1947 the first jet was flown and in 1987 a space shuttle was launched.

Modes of Transportation:

Transport modes means to achieve resilience for people and freight. Depending on their travel, they choose a better one from the three basic types which are:

Each mode is described by a set of practical, operational and economic characteristics:

Road Transportation:

A road is a particularly visible route, through a city or village. In earlier days people used horses, oxen for transportation and in very rare cases human beings were used. But now a days they use automobiles and a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Other users of roads contain bicycles, motorcars, buses, pedestrians and trucks etc.

Generally Roads can be used for transportation of goods and people. When we transport goods from one place to other place then that vehicle should have license and safety regulations ensure a separation of the two industries.

Road transportation has an average resilience as vehicles can serve various purposes, at that time heavy loaded vehicles are hard to move outside roads. These transport systems are mainly connected to light industries only and charges high cost for maintenance. However, with containerization, this transportation has turn into a critical role in goods distribution.

Rail Transportation:

Railway transport takes a major role in transport system because generally the development of trade, industry and economics of a country depends on the development of railways.  Generally railway transport means transportation of people and goods, by the way of wheeled vehicles running on rails. In many of countries, this transportation helps in economic growth and international trade. This transport system has both advantages and disadvantages, including:

Advantages:

  • It facilitates long travel distance and transport of hulking (heavy) goods which are not easily transported through vehicles.
  • It is a fast and usual form of transport because it helps in the transportation of goods with speed and certainty.
  • It encourages mobility of labor and provides a great scope of employment.
  • Mainly it is the safest form of transport system and chances of accidents are low as compared to other modes.
  • The capacity of the railways is very high hence we can also add more wagons to it.
  • It charges less cost to travel from one place to another place as compared to other transport systems and it reduces traffic jam.

Disadvantages:

  • The railway requires a large investment for its construction and moreover the investments are specific. If traffic is low then that investments may mean wastage of huge resources.
  • The timings and routes of rail cannot be adjusted to individual requirements. It is unsuitable for short distances and less goods.
  • Rail transport can takes much time in booking and taking delivery of goods as compared to motor transport.

Pipeline Transportation:

By using a pipeline, transportation of goods like liquids, chemical stable substances and gases from one place to another place is called pipeline transport. These lines are unlimited, which can be present on land and under water. Now a days sewage, semi-liquid mixtures (slurry), water and beer pipelines are also exist. The most expensive pipeline transportation is refined and crude petroleum products for example oil, natural gas and bio-fuels. Pneumatic tubes are used to transport solid capsules; these pipes are compressed with air.

The lengthiest gas pipeline is extending over 2,911 km and which is present in between Alberta and Sarnia in Canada. The longest oil pipeline is having length of 9,344 km named as the Transiberian, which is located from eastern Siberia to Western Europe. This pipeline transportation is essential because they correspond to crude substances (petroleum) and harbors.

Maritime Transportation:

The delivery of goods and people by waterways is called as Maritime Transport and it takes the major role in international trade and globalization. In between trading partners, port operations are useful tools to allow maritime trade.

Maritime transportation is the sufficient mode to move heavy loads of cargo over long distances, which can be done because of the physical properties of water only. Actually maritime routes are compressed of oceans, seas, ponds and rivers, seashore etc. Anyway because of the location of financial activities maritime circulation takes place on particular portions of the maritime space, mainly over the North Atlantic and Pacific. When compared to other transport systems, this system has high terminal costs. These transport systems are mainly connected to large industries like steel, petrochemical etc and it charges high cost for maintenance. 

Air Transportation:

Air transport is the wonderful presentation of 20th century to the world. It takes major role in the development of transport system because it is the fastest way to transport goods from one place to another place. The transport of goods through airways is costly compared to other systems and it is only used to carry small quantity of costly goods. Some documents (air consignment note, passenger and luggage ticket) are needed when goods and passengers are carried by air.

Advantages:

  • High speed
  • Quick service
  • No physical barrier
  • Natural route
  • National defence or security
  • No infrastructure investment
  • Easy access

Disadvantages:

  • Unreliable
  • Huge investment
  • Risky
  • Very costly
  • Small carrying capacity

Intermodal Transportation:

Intermodal Transportation means a combination of multiple modes used in transportation of goods. By combining various modes, passengers benefit from this ability to extend their destination and get their goods to their customers on time without any damage. Containerization has been a dynamic vector of intermodal integration, to communicate more adequately which allows maritime and land transportation.

Even though intermodal transportation applies for passenger actions, which is used for different purposes. But interconnected modes of a public transit system, it is over freight transportation that the most considerable results have been existed.

Telecommunications:

Telecommunication is a transmission of data at certain distance, which means mainly through electrical signals or electromagnetic waves. But in olden days they transmit the data by using visual signals like beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs etc. Hence it is also considered as one type of transport mode and is provided for continuous movement of information. These communication systems have high network charges but low distribution charges, which illustrate many telecommunication networks. And those networks are connected to tertiary and quaternary sectors similar to stock markets, business to business data networks etc.

Transportation Impact

Transportation has lot of impact on the society through various modes of transport. Particularly there are three major impacts of transportation in the society which are:

  • Economic impact on transportation
  • Impact of planning on transport
  • Impact of transportation on Environment

Economic Impact on Transportation

Transport is one of the major sectors that contribute to economy of any country. This sector helps in developing economically as well as it impacts on welfare of population in society. In a society economic growth majorly depended on increasing both capacity and rationality of transport. In community economic development can be measured with increase of major factors such as productivity, employment, business activity, property values, investment and tax revenues. If we consider aggregate level, then transportation can reduce costs in most of the economic sectors only when it is efficient. But in-case of inefficient transportation costs will be increased. Economic impacts on transportation will be in three ways that is direct impact, indirect impact and induced impact.

Impact of Planning on Transport

Transport planning in new infrastructure will be allowing in high level of utilization but less impact of it. In planning of transport it involves various factors that are evaluation, assessment, design and also siting of transport facilities. Rational planning has been followed in planning of transport. It defines goals and objectives as well as identifies problems, generation of alternatives, evaluation of these alternatives then a plan will be developed. It is much easy to foresee future transport with the help of transport forecasting.

Impact of Transportation on Environment

Transportation has very worse effect on environment because it will use energy and that burns most of the world’s petroleum. Apart from this it will create air pollution with nitrous oxide and which will be contributing to global warming with emission of carbon-di-oxide. In most of the developed countries, rules were passed in environmental regulations to reduce individual vehicles emissions. While other environmental impacts of transport system involves traffic congestion and automobile oriented urban sprawl.

Elements

In this also have different types of transports, which include air, water, road, rail, pipelines, space, cable and more. This transportation field can be broadly separated into three categories; those are infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transportation is most essential because it allows trade between people and it is also important for the progress of civilization.

Infrastructure

  • Infrastructure is a static installation that can’t be changed always which allows you to control the vehicle. It has a way for terminal and the facility for parking and maintenance. For rail, pipeline, road and cable transport, the entire way of the vehicle travelling must be set up. Air and water transport don’t need this, because the airway and seaway doesn’t have the requirement to build up. However, they are thinking about the framework at the end of the terminals.
  • Terminals such as airports, ports and stations are the locations where passengers and consignments can be changed from one vehicle to another. Travelling of passengers, there are different modes of terminals are integrating to allow riders to interchange and to take advantage of each mode. At particular instance, rail links to airports connect to the city centers and suburbs. The terminals for automobiles are parking lots, at simple stops buses and coaches will operate them. For freight, terminals act as transshipment points, thus some courier services transport their consignments directly to the origin hub to the destination hub.
  • The economical income of the infrastructure can either be public or private. Transport is the only way to fulfill the necessity of the public; such as roads and in some countries railways, airports are constructed by funding of taxation.
  • Infrastructure is the permanent thing or place that is necessary for transport and this infrastructure can be the roads, railways, airways, waters, canals, airports, railway station, bus station, terminals, seaports and more. Terminals are necessary to interchange the passengers and goods. It is also necessary for maintenance.

Vehicles

  • A vehicle is a machine which is used to carry people and goods from one place to another. Dislike the infrastructure, the vehicle can move with the consignment and also with riders. Being pulling a cable from the engine or muscle-power, the vehicle must not startits own propulsion; this was more commonly seen in the steam engine, combustion engine, electric motor, a jet engine or arocket and other vehicles that exist with the propulsion. There is a systematic conversion of the energy to start the vehicle and to run the vehicle; this process where mainly done through wheels, propellers and pressure.
  • Vehicles can be of any type, which are travel on different networks. Various types of vehicles include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, helicopters, airplane and more.

Operation

Private transport is the main issue to the owner of the vehicle, who operates the vehicle themselves. Whereas For public transport and freight transport, the export and imports are done through private courier services or by governments. The consignment and vehicles may be owned and operations done by the same company, otherwise there willbe different entities. Generally, many of the countries are having their own airline and railway services. Since the 1980s, many of these have been privatized. Operations pacts with the way the vehicles are operated. The procedures set for this purpose includes:

  • Financing
  • Legalities
  • Policies

In this transportation industry, operations and properties of infrastructure can be either public or private.

Transportation Lesson Plans

A Lesson Plan is a plan designed by the teacher to introduce a new topic to children, that includes the method of teaching, the topics covered, activities undertaken and aids used to teach the child about a particular subject. A Transportation lesson plan for Kindergarten students would typically include introduction of the topic transportation by asking the children to list the types of transport they are familiar with, by asking them to draw their favorite means of transport. Teach them simple sentences like say a car transportation, a bus transportation etc. Sing a rhyme of vehicles like Uncle Tom’s red engine, etc.

The middle school transportation lesson plan’s objective would be to discuss major types of transportation for trade and personal use. Explain how goods can be transported from place to place referring as aid to a map charting major transportation routes.

A Transportation lesson plan for senior students would include identification of modes of transportation and communication among people, goods and ideas from place to place, students learn the advantages and disadvantages of various modes of transport with impact on the environment as a major course of study. They also study how global interdependence and traditional modes of transport are affected by modern means of transportation and communication. As an assignment they speculate and write how global economy is affected by transportation.

Transportation Activities

Transportation Activities are a major mode of learning especially in Kindergarten students. Transportation activities are interesting and fosters a love for creative activity. Transportation activities for kindergarten students include coloring posters of various types of transportation in the colors they like. Crafts using waste materials like Styrofoam egg cartons, cardboard boxes are used to make different means of transport, using colored paper to make origami boats. An idea for crafts from the Mama and William Crafts for Kindergarten kids is to use an entire load of primary color foam shapes to make a train. Two medium and one small square on the top for the engine, two medium square for a coach, small circles for wheels and graduated circles for smoke plume. All connected by thread and stuck on a narrow piece of black cardboard. This activity is also helps to practice shapes, colors and sizes for pre-schoolers. Other transportation activities include singing rhymes and songs about cars, buses and trains, pasting transportation photos etc.

Transportation Services

Transportation services essentially carry people and goods from one place to another. With manufacturing and distribution spread worldwide transportation services have become vital part of the economy. Container transport services by ship, air, rail and road routes to transfer finished goods and raw materials to their destinations have become necessary in this age of global interdependence. Refrigerated trucks to carry perishables, flatbed trailers to carry vehicles, trucks to carry goods and packing and moving services are all a part of transportation. Warehouses to hold goods, documentation services are also part of transportation services.

The Commercial Orbital Transportation Service is a NASA program to implement the commercial delivery of crew and cargo to the International Space Station.

Transportation Function

The most common modes in usage of transport are moving of passengers and freight. Other uses of transport are strategic and tactical planning relocation by armed forces or civilian mobility construction or emergency equipment.

Passenger

Public and private are two types of transportation. Public transports are limited services where as private are unlimited services depending on passenger desire. It offer great flexibility, but has less capacity and a good environment impact. Passenger may be travel for regular basis for business, leisure or migration.

The automobile and mass transit dominated the short distance travel by public. The latter consists of busses in rural and small population cities, enlarge with suburban rail, cable cars and high-speed transportation in big cities. The automobile, trains and aircrafts are used for long distance transport. To travel between continents and longest distance predominantly used air transportation. Since all passengers transport normally starts from one mode and ends with foot walking, therefore all passenger transport can be considered as intermodal. Public transport may involve different modes at a transport hub such as bus or railway stations.

In public transport spectrum buses or taxis can be found. Bus transport is cheaper as compared to taxis but they are less flexible than taxis. Comparing with both modes demand-responsive transport offering flexibility while, remaining reasonably priced.

Some passengers in international travel restricted for legislation and visa purposes.

Freight

Cargo transportation is a key in the value chain including manufacturing. By increased specialization and globalization, manufacturing is located further away from use of resource and high demand for transport. While all modes of transport use cargo transport, therefore it is difficult to choose between them.

Generally, all the shipments are manually loaded and unloaded into the deck of the ship or car; packing of shipment allows easily to handling and transfer between modes automatically, and the systematic sizes of the shipment will allows you to increase the scale in gain of national economy in vehicle operation. Since 1950s, cargo transportation has been one of the key factors in international market and globalization. Several renowned private enterprises such as FedEx and UPS participate actively in the package and cargo delivery market, whereas United States Postal Service has good market share in letter delivery.

The most common bulk transports  handled roughly without deterioration are petrol, oil, c ore, coal and cereals.  Because of the quality of the product, massive quantities can be handled quickly and efficiently. By using pipeline liquid products with enough capacity can also transported.

The way bulk amount of product is air freight but less than 1% compared to other transports. The amount of volume transport through airline is 40% of the value.

The principals such as delay and just-in-time within the value chain, resulting in willingness pay high amount for quick delivery of components or high value/weight ratio became important. Electronics and cloths are most common items sent through air excluding mail

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