Thar Desert

Thar is a Great Indian Desert located in the northwestern region of India. It runs across the border between India and Pakistan. It covers most of the state of Rajasthan and some parts of Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat of India. In Pakistan it extends into the province of Sindh and Punjab.

Thar Desert Geography

The Thar desert is surrounded by the Great Rann of Kutch on the south, Aravalli ranges on the east and Indus river on the west. It covers almost 3/5ths of the land mass in Rajasthan. This desert slopes towards the Indus plain, surfacing back in the form of sand dunes. These sand dunes are very high, with the highest ones centered in the southern part of the desert. They are as high as 152 m. The smaller ones are in the north and not more than 16 m in height. The soil in this region is arid and ranges from sandy to sandy-loam. Some of the soils are very high in salts turning the well waters poisonous.


The Thar’s origin is a controversial one. While some consider it to be 10,000 years old, some others date it to as early as 2000 BC. Archeological discoveries have proved that before the desertification of these valleys, the banks of the Indus river that existed in this region supported the Indus valley civilization of Mohenjodaro. The ancient Indian epics describe this place as the ocean of salt. Fossils of dinosaurs have also been traced from the regions close to the Thar.

Thar Desert Area Covered

Countries India, Pakistan


  • Rajasthan
  • Haryana
  • Punjab
  • Gujarat
  • Sindh
  • Punjab
Biome Desert


Total Area: 446000 sq kms
Area Occupied In India : 208110 sq kms
States : Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana
Predominant Cities : Bikaner, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer

Thar Desert Climate / Weather

Thar Desert lies 80% of its region in India and the rest is left of in Pakistan. The Climate in Thar desert is very humid with temperature ranges from 45 degrees to a maximum of 60 degrees in daylight and cools down at night in summer. The weather condition in Thar desert during winter that chills out in the night due to the cooling of sand and keeps warm in the day. The rainfall is very less due to no hill regions in the desert.

Average Temperature by Month

Month Maximum
Precipitation in mm
January 25.6 7.6 1.00
February 29.5 10.7 2.00
March 35.3 16.6 1.00
April 39.9 20.7 1.00
May 42.4 25.0 1.00
June 40.8 27.3 10.00
July 37.2 26.8 50.00
August 35.1 25.8 76.00
September 36.2 24.2 23.00
October 36.4 20.1 5.00
November 32.3 13.9 1.00
December 27.4 8.7 1.00


The climatic conditions in Thar are not as harsh as in the other deserts. It has diverse ecosystem and hence even though it is arid it is rich in comparison to other deserts. Natural vegetation includes shrubs, herbs and thorny trees such as acacia.


The Black buck (Antilope cervicapra) , the Indian wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) and the Indian gazelle (Gazella bennettii) are found in large numbers in the desert. Other varities include the wild cat and the red fox. About 141 species of resident and migratory birds are found in this desert. Eagles, falcons, vultures, buzzards, harriers and kestrels are some of them.

People and Culture

About 40% of the total population of Rajasthan lives in the Thar desert. Most of the people live a nomadic life due to the scarcity of water. They depend on live stock farming, agriculture and forests for their living. They are very artistic and help protect their natural habitat.

Thar Desert Tourism

After completion of the hot the villages are united to bring down the culture in the late evenings with music, dance of tradition and stores. The people of Thar Desert are up with sturdy men with colorful turbans, men with moustaches, cheerful women in multitude and kids life.

As a part of Tourism we can experience the culture of people who live in desert areas, food chain, music, dances and dessert dinners. The most of it carries with respect to camel safari through the desert which is called a ride on camel through the desert. The tour includes a visit to tracking animals by the villagers and can find animal such as peacock, Deer, Woodpeckers, Tneelgai or Blue bull are a part of attraction.

Festivals & Events

The festivals in that desert includes camel races, turban tying competitions, with the famous gair and fire dances etc. The festival happens every year in the month of February. The Kalpavriksha or the celestial tree ones termed to be grown in the temple and after the death the sculpture has been built with the alloy of 8 metals in the place of the tree. Profound to be so powerful and the devotees are blessed to full fill their wishes. The temple has visit of black cobra who has been staying over there for the past 400 years and believed to come out in the summer, the person who has a glimpse on the cobra will be blessed with good luck. The national park is situated near the jaisalmer in Rajasthan and consists of migratory birds, resident birds of the desert and can find the fossils of dinosaurs in the area that were present millions of years ago.

The Indian nuclear missiles are tested in Pokhran which is part of Thar desert.


Thar Desert Tree Species

  • Acacia jacquemontii
  • Acacia leucophloea
  • Acacia senegal
  • Albizia lebbeck
  • Azadirachta indica
  • Anogeissus rotundifolia
  • Prosopis cineraria
  • Salvadora oleoides
  • Tecomella undulata
  • Tamarix articulata

Thar Desert Small Trees and Shrubs

  • Calligonum polygonoides
  • Acacia jacquemontii
  • Balanites roxburghii
  • Ziziphus zizyphus
  • Ziziphus nummularia
  • Calotropis procera
  • Suaeda fruticosa
  • Crotalaria burhia
  • Aerva tomentosa
  • Clerodendrum multiflorum
  • Leptadenia pyrotechnica
  • Lycium barbarum
  • Grewia populifolia
  • Commiphora mukul
  • Euphorbia neriifolia
  • Cordia rothii
  • Maytenus emarginata
  • Capparis decidua
  • Mimosa hamata

Thar Desert Herbs and Grasses

  • Eleusine compressa
  • Dactyloctenium scindicum
  • Cenchrus biflorus
  • Cenchrus setigerus
  • Lasiurus hirsutus
  • Cynodon dactylon
  • Panicum turgidum
  • Panicum antidotale
  • Dichanthium annulatum
  • Sporobolus marginatus
  • Saccharum spontaneum
  • Cenchrus ciliaris
  • Desmostachya bipinnata
  • Erogrostis species
  • Ergamopagan species
  • Phragmitis species
  • Tribulus terrestris
  • Typha species
  • Sorghum halepense
  • Citrullus colocynthis

Nearest Hotels at Thar Desert

Hotel Name Address
The Laxmi Niwas Palace ( A Luxury Heritage Hotel) Dr Karni Singhji Road, Bikaner, Rajasthan - 334 001
Hotel Gaj Kesari Bye Pass Road, Bikaner, Rajasthan - 334 005
Vesta Bikaner Palace Himmatsar, Bikaner, Rajasthan - 334 001
Lallgarh Palace - A Heritage Palace Hotel Lallgarh Complex, Bikaner, Rajasthan - 334 001
Shri Ram Heritage Hotel Sardulganj, Bikaner, Rajasthan - 334 003
Hotel Padmini Niwas Sardulganj, Bikaner, Rajasthan - 334 001
Karni Bhawan Palace Gandhi Colony, Bikaner, Rajasthan - 334 001

Thar Desert Images

Thar Desert
Thar Desert View
Thar Desert Animals
Thar Desert Animals
Thar Desert Climate
Thar Desert Climate Weather Forcast
Thar Desert on Indian Map
Thar Desert on Indian Map
Thar Desert Sun Set
Sun Set in Thar Desert
Thar Desert Water Source
Thar Desert Water Source
 Thar Desert Camel Trek
Thar Desert Camel Trek
Thar Desert Map on Pakistan
Thar Desert Map on Pakistan Map
 Thar Desert Monsoon
Thar Desert Monsoon
Thar Desert Rann of Kutch
Thar Desert National Park - Rann of Kutch