Sri Lanka, also known as Ceylon, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, situated in Southern Asia, south eastern location of India, near lanes of Indian Ocean Sea. It is spread over 65,610 km², having 64,740 km² of land along with 870 km² of water. It has 1,340 km long cost line. Natural resources are graphite, mineral sands, limestone, gems, hydropower, phosphates, and clay.
Sri Lanka is tropical in nature with dry and wet seasons. From May till August the Yala monsoon brings rainfall to the southwestern half of land, whereas the dry season stretches from December to March. The southwest witnesses the highest rainfall – which may go up to 4000 mm annually. The East and North are nearly dry, with almost 1000 mm of rain annually. Colombo along with low-lying coastal areas manifests an average temperature of 27°C.
The rivers of Sri Lanka start from the central highlands. From there they flow towards the plains and merge into the sea.
The longest river is the Mahaweli, which traverses a length of about 330 km. Sri Lanka’s second longest river is the Aravi Aru, which stretches about 220 km on a northwestward course, starting from the central highlands to the Mannar Gulf.
Sri Lanka is not coupled with any natural lakes. Dams and other rivers have formed large reservoirs.
Sri Lanka is the hub to several flora and fauna. The country has nearly 90 species of mammal including leopard, monkeys, elephant etc, myriads of butterflies, almost 80 snake species and almost 435 species of birds.
Of the 431 species of birds, 251 are resident and almost 21 are endemic. Some, like shy brown-capped Babbler and striking Red faced Malkoha are found all through the island, nonetheless confined to small parts of forests, National Parks and Forest Reserves.
The plant life stretched from equatorial rain forest to the dry region and the more temperate climate of the highlands. The species of trees include ferns, satinwood, bamboo, palm, Jak and ebony. Orchids are found in the lush forest.
Mountain of Piduruthalagala, which is also called Mount Pedro, (2525 meters) is the tallest peak in Sri Lanka. It is situated in Nuwara Eliya and covered by green tea plantations. Waterfalls are scattered all over the peak making hiking on Mount Pedro more thrilling. For security purposes, it has been restricted to climb to the peak.
|Map of Sri Lanka|