Sao Tome and Principe comprised of the islands situated near the western coast of central Africa. The official language of Sao Tome and Principe is Portuguese, whereas some Sao Tomeans are more comfortable with English as well.
These islands are located off the coast of Gabon and in the equatorial Atlantic. Both the islands comprises of volcanic mountain stretching to the north. The island of Sao Tome is nearly 50 km large and 32 km wide.
Nearly 160,000 people make Sao Tome and about 6,000 is the population of Principe. The population hails from different ethnic groups migrated to these islands since 1485.
The climate of these islands is tropical, hot and humid. The average temperatures remain nearly 27 degree Celsius and observe minor variation. At higher altitudes, the yearly temperature drops to 20 degrees Celsius and nights are usually cool. Annual rainfall ranges from 500 centimeters on the southwestern areas to 100 centimeters in the northern lands.
The rainy season starts from October and lasts till May.
The Contador River is one of the important water sources of these islands which is situated in the northwest part of Sao Tome and its valley is considered to be the deepest in the country. Many streams flow down from the volcanic heights into the Gulf of Guinea. There is no prominent lake on Sao Tome and Príncipe.
Almost 700 species exists on the archipelago. Of the 55 remaining species of birds in these islands, nearly 15 to 26 are endemic, others however not endemic, are the rarest birds found in the world.
The maroon pigeon which is also called as Sao Tome Olive Pigeon and the Sao Tome Giant Sunbird have also been seen in the ridges. Above the river Io Grande, on the same track, Sao Tomé Short-tail, which is not seen in the mountain forest, has been witnessed.
Sao Tome is the highest peak which is 50 kilometers long and almost 32 kilometers broad, which comprise of more mountains than the two islands. Its highest summit is 6,640 feet tall. Príncipe is almost 30 kilometers long and 6 kilometers broad. Its highest peak scales about 948 meters. Apart from being the second smallest country in Africa, it is also said to be the smallest country that speaks Portuguese.
|Map of Sao Tome and Principe|