Earlier Mali was the part of the West African empires. Later the Mali Empire was formed on Niger River, and up to 15th century it became a big power. The ancient cities Timbuktu and Djenne were main center for both the Islamic learning and trade under Mali Empire.
In late 1800s, during colonial era, Mali came under the French control. In the year 1959, Senegal and Malibecame united for forming Mali Federation. The MaliFederation got its independence from the France on 20th June 1960. The withdrawal of Senegal from theMali federation, in August of 1960, gave a chance to the Sudanese Republic for forming the independent nation called Mali.
Currency:West African CFA franc
Population: 14.85 million (2012) World Bank
President: Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta
Official language: French
The population of Mali is estimated as 12 million. The large part of country’s population lives in rural area. The southern part of the nation alone includes 90% of the total population. Especially Bamako covers the one million residents. Most of the ethnic groups in the country are sub-Saharan and they encompass a big part of population in the nation. The main ethnic in the country are:
Other important groups are: 17% Peul, 12% Voltaic, 6% Songhai, 10% Moor, 10% Tuareg.
Mali is having constitutional democracy. The constitution of 12th January 1992 governs the democracy of the country. All the major branches of the country’s constitution such as legislative, judicial and executive have been provided separate power in the government. The government runs according to semi presidential government system.
President is elected on a 5- year term. The commander of chief and the chief of state both the role is played by the presidents. President appoints the Prime Minister of the nation who serves as the head of the government.
Music has an important place in the culture of Mali. Really the music of the country is diverse and possesses different genres. It is considered that the Malian music has been derived from Griots.
Though literature of Mali is not as famous as music is, but the Malians have great interest in literature that signifies that the natives are intellectual. In fact the country is famous as liveliest intellectual centre of Africa.
The geographical and ethnic diversity of the country is reflected in daily life’s culture. The colorful robes known as boubous are the traditional attire of the Malian people. By participating in differenttraditional dances festivals and ceremonies, Malian shows their respect toward their traditionalculture.
|Bamako Airport||Kayes Airport||Mopti Airport||Sikasso Airport||Yelimane Airport|
|Gao Airport||Kenieba Airport||Nara Airport||Tombouctou Airport||Segou Airport|
|Goundam Airport||Koutiala Airport||Nioro Airport|
9 years education is compulsory in Mali. 7 year is starting age for education and up to age of 16 years, the children are bound to continue their education. Four kinds of primary schools are prominent in the nation. Along with the government schools, there are numerous private schools in the country that provide education to the students.
The Basic Education- it comprises 9 grades and divided into 2 cycles. The first cycle includes grade one to grade six. The second cycle includes 7 to 9 grade. During this level the English is taught as foreign language. The students appear in the exam of diploma detudes Fundamentals in second cycle’s last grade.
The Secondary Education- grade 10 to grade 12 comes in secondary education in the nation. Along with English, German, Arabic and Russian are taught during this level of education. The 12th grade students have to appear in exam known as Baccalaureat.
Mali is counted among the poorest nations of the world. The average annual salary of the workers is US$1,500. during 1992-1995, the country achieved a reduction in the financial imbalance as well as an economic growth with the help of a program made for economic adjustment. The particular program increased the economic and social condition of the country and led Mali to join the World Trade Organization on 31st May 1995. As per 2005 the GDP of the nation is US$5.8 billion.
The Mali Federation got its independence from the France on 20th June 1960
According to 2008 census, Mali’s population is 12,324,029
|» Colleges and Universities in Mali||» Sports in Mali||» Mali Airports|