Russia is a country of various historical sites, buildings, and spots of tourist attraction. There are interesting places of visit, galleries, museums that displays the rich culture and heritage of the country.

Moscow Kremlin is also termed as The Kremlin in Russia. It is one of the well-preserved historical castle complex located in the heart of Moscow city. The fort overlooks the Moskva River in the southern side of the city. The Red Square and the Saint Basil’s Cathedral are situated to the east and Alexander Garden can be found in the west.

The first Kremlin was constructed in late 1320 with the request of Ivan Kalita. The popular Kremlins in Russia combine four palaces, cathedrals, Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The Kremlin complex is the home of the Russian President.

Moscow Kremlin Information

State Party Russian Federation
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv, vi
Reference 545
Region Europe
Inscription History
Inscription 1990  (14th Session)

Kremlin Palaces

The great Kremlin Palace is one of the largest castles in entire Russia. The palace has a stunning looking fusion of white and yellow coupled with a green roof top. The golden color incorporates a touch of aristocracy to the entire palace. The palace was constructed in the year 1837 by King Nicholas I. The Grand Kremlin Palace associates the Palace of Facets and the Terem Palace.

The construction cost of building the grand Kremlin Palace was 11 million rubles. The renovation work in the 20th century came close to about 1 billion dollars. The primary attractions of the Grand Terem Palace in Kremlin include reception halls, private rooms, red staircase, and living rooms of the tsars, and the reconstruction of Lazarus Church of 1393.

The palace was originally built in the year 1462 in the rule of Ivan the Terrible. However, it was reconstructed due to great damage done to the palace during world war. During the 18th century, the construction was stopped as the entire Russian capital moved to the north city. Later in 1740’s an Italian architecture was hired by Queen Elizabeth and once again the construction work began.

The palace was constructed to extend the Russian autocracy. The best architects were deputed to execute the splendid job and eventually they did come up with a classic piece of art. The capacity of the palace is immense. The entire length of the palace is 125 meters and the width is 47 meters and hence covers a total of 25,000 sq. meters. The complete structure has nearly 9 churches from the 14th, 15th and 16th century and has more than 700 rooms in all. The western part of the palace was for the Royal family. Just like several other palaces, this area is also off limits to public viewing.

Kremlin Towers and Museums

The Kremlin Museums, built in1961, is among the initial Soviet historical buildings that were accepted as a part of the World Heritage listings in the year 1990. Its significance is massive to the residents of Russia. The rooms of Lenin and Stalin two of Soviet’s popular and prominent leaders are housed within the Kremlin Museums.

The existing Kremlin walls and towers were the art pieces of Italian architects who worked from 1485 to 1495. The Kremlin Wall fences surround an area of 275,000 square meters that is equal to 68 acres. The height spans from 5 to 19 meters. The thickness of the walls has been evaluated to be between 3.5 to 6.5 meters. There were eighteen Kremlin towers in the initial stage of construction. In the 17th century, four more towers get included.

Kremlin Cathedral Square

The Cathedral Square is considered to be the heart of Kremlin. Three cathedrals and six buildings surround the square. The cathedrals are prominent visitor’s center these days. The Cathedral of the Dormition was built in 1479 and was the main church of Moscow city where several Russian Tsars were crowned.

Cathedral of Annunciation was built in 1489 and displays a three-domed structure. A century later, it got 6 more domes. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael is situated in the southeastern part of the city. This was constructed in the year 1508. In cathedral cemetery there were many Russian Tsars buried since its construction.

Great Bell Tower is yet another remarkable structure erected in the northeastern corner of the square. The construction ended in 1600. The Tsars Bell stands on the pedestal and is the biggest bell in the world. It was the tallest building in the country measuring 81 meters in height until the Russian Revolution was witnessed. This bell comprises of 21 bells in all. It was facilitated as an alarm when the enemy approached for an attack. The upper area of the bell tower was perished during the French invasion to Russia. This was of the crucial moments in Russian history.

Kremlin Armory

The Armory in Kremlin was a warehouse for weaponry and other war tankers. The armory building was transformed into an exhibition hall and museum after the French attack. Even after all the devastation, the armory structure in Kremlin still stands with pride as a treasure house of prosperity and unique wartime device collections. The Yuri Dolgorunky and armor of Boris Godunov are the prominent pieces of collection that is a part of this museum.

Short List of Russian Cities and Towns with Kremlins

  • World Heritage Sites
    • Moscow Kremlin
    • Novgorod Kremlin
    • Kazan Kremlin
    • Suzdal Kremlin
    • Solovetsky Monastery
  • Extant
    • Astrakhan Kremlin
    • Kolomna Kremlin
    • Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
    • Pskov Kremlin
    • Rostov Veliky Kremlin
    • Smolensk Kremlin
    • Tobolsk Kremlin (the sole stone kremlin in Siberia)
    • Tula Kremlin
    • Zaraysk Kremlin
    • Troitse Sergiyeva Lavra (Monastery)
    • Ivangorod Fortress
    • Oreshek
    • Staraya Ladoga
    • Alexandrov Kremlin
    • Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery
    • Pskovo-Pechersky Monastery
    • Korela Fortress
    • New Jerusalem Monastery
    • Izborsk Kremlin
  • In ruins
    • Gdov Kremlin
    • Porkhov Kremlin
    • Serpukhov Kremlin
    • Velikie Luki Kremlin
    • Torzhok Kremlin
    • Mozhaysk Kremlin
    • Fortress of Koporye
    • Vyazma Kremlin (one tower)
    • Syzran Kremlin (one tower, 1683)
    • Ufa
  • Unwalled
    • Vladimir Kremlin (Tower Golden Gate and bank)
    • Dmitrov
    • Ryazan
    • Vologda
    • Yaroslavl (two towers)
    • Pereslavl-Zalessky
    • Khlynov (Vyatka)
    • Volokolamsk
  • Only Traces
    • Borovsk
    • Opochka
    • Zvenigorod
    • Starodub
    • Tver
    • Sknyatino
    • Fortress of Jama
    • Fortress of Radonezh
    • Ryazan
    • Old Ryazan (60 km from modern Ryazan)
    • Ostrov (traces of bank of fortress, 14-15 centuries)
    • Belgorod (bank of fortress)
    • Vereya
    • Kaluga
    • Kleshchin
    • Kostroma
    • Pustozyorsk
    • Uglich
    • Staritsa
    • Sviyazhsk
    • Cheboksary
    • Yuryev-Polsky
    • Aleksin
    • Opochka
    • Oryol
    • Rurikovo gorodishche
    • Mtsensk
  • Modern Imitations
    • Izmaylovo Kremlin

Kremlins Outside of Borders of Modern Russia

  • Belz, Ukraine (only traces)
  • Kiev, Ukraine (reconstructed tower of the Golden Gate)
  • Chelm, Poland (only traces)
  • Putyvl, Ukraine
  • Novhorod-Siverskyi, Ukraine
  • Grodno, Belarus (only traces under the castle)
  • Chernihiv, Ukraine (only traces)
  • Kamyanyets, Belarus (shafts and Belaya Vezha tower)
  • Belgorod Kievsky, Ukraine (now village Belgorodka)