Indiana is the 38th largest state of the United States and is situated in the North central part of United States towards its eastern side. Indiana is having a total area of 36,420 square miles out of which 35,870 square miles are comprised of the land area and 5550 square miles are comprised of the water bodies. Indiana’s geographic centre is located in the Marion country. Indiana is bordered by Kentucky towards the south, Illinois towards the west, to the northern side there is the Lake Michigan and Michigan and to the eastern side there lies Ohio. Indiana is also important in account of its water body. The major rivers of Indiana are Ohio River, Wabash River, Tippecanoe River, Kankakee River and the White River. The major lakes are Lake Wawa see, Lake Michigan and the Monroe Lake
It is situated at Latitude: 37˚ 47’ N to 41˚46’ N and Longitude 84˚ 49’ W to 88˚ 4’W. The total length of Indiana measures about 240 miles and it has a width of about 140 miles. Mean elevation of Indiana is about 700 feet above the sea level. The highest peak of Indiana is the Hoosier hill which is situated 1,257 feet above the sea level. Hoosier hill is located in the Franklin Township. The lowest point is situated in Posey at the point where the Wabash River flows into the Ohio River. This lowest point is only just 320 feet above the sea level.
Indiana is broadly divided into following three regions:
Northern Indiana is comprised of 26 counties. The northwestern region of Indiana is also known as Chicago Metropolitan area as they economically and culturally very closely relate to Chicago. The counties included in Chicago Metropolitan area are the Lake County, Porter County, La Porte County, Newton County, and Jasper County. The north central area of Indiana is known as Michiana as they are as they are economically very closely related to the Southwest Michigan. The counties included in Michiana are Elkhart County, Fulton County, Kosciusko County, Marshall County, St. Joseph County, and Starke County etc. The northeastern region of Indiana is centered on Fort Wayne. The northeastern region is mostly consisted of a number of lakes like Wawasee Lake, Maxinkuckee Lake, and Lake James etc. The Wawasee Lake is the largest natural lake present in Indiana. The economy of Northern Indiana mostly depends on heavy industries and agricultural practices.
The Central Indiana consists of 33 counties situated in the middle third of the Indiana. The central Indiana is considered as Indiana Metropolitan area by the Hoosiers. Indianapolis is the major city of central Indiana. The most densely populated region of Indiana is the central Indiana. The economy of central Indiana is mainly depended on Agriculture, research, manufacturing, education. Indianapolis, the capital of Indiana is located in the central Indiana. Indianapolis is also the largest city of Indiana. Indiana is intersected broadly by number of interstates, highways and railway and hence acquired the state motto “The Crossroads of America”. The land area of the Central region is largely comprised of shallow valleys and many gently rolling hills.
The Southern Indiana is located in the southernmost region of the Indiana and it is comprised of 33 counties. The early capital of Indiana, Corydon, is situated in the Harrison County of the Southern Indiana. The first settled region of Indiana is the Southern Indiana. The largest city of Southern Indiana is the Evansville. Southern Indiana is topographically different from the other two regions. The land area is largely comprised of large forest regions, rolling fields and series of hills known as “The Knob”.
The landforms of Indiana include three main physiographic regions. They are the Great Lakes Plains, Till Plains and the Southern Plains and Lowlands.
It is situated mostly in the northern region and consists of fertile lowlands. They are known as the great lake plains as they are located along the great lakes Wisconsin, Illinois and Ohio. The sand dunes are the other major feature of the Indiana landform. Sand dunes are mostly present along the region of Lake Michigan. But most of these sand dunes are now removed by the industrial sectors and private housing sectors. Towards the southern side of these extensive sand dunes there lies rich black soil. This soil is highly fertile and very much suitable for cultivation. This region is also known as Northern Lake or Moraine region. Moraines are regions consisting of low hills and rocks which have appeared after the melting of glaciers which occurred towards the end of ice age.
Till plains are situated southwards to the great lake plain. They are comprised of many low hills and valleys. The soil of till plain is highly fertile.
They are situated southwards to the till plains. These are hilly regions and comprised of many knobs which are divided by series of lowlands. The southern plains and lowlands are most suitable for animal grazing.