Idaho came into existence as a state on the 3rd of July in 1890. It happened to be the 43rd state of United States of America. Idaho is ranked 14th in the country in terms of its area and the largest city of the state, Boise, is its capital.
The Republican Party has, by and large been the leading party in Idahoan law and government. Thus, the Republicans are more eminent in the political picture of Idaho as compared to the Democrats.
The constitution is more or less molded on the lines of the national constitution but not without a number of embellishments. Idaho, even today, functions under its original state constitution which was formed in the year 1889. The constitution describes the laws of the Idaho’s state government, and may be modified through the process of plebiscite.
The Idaho code holds every single one of Idaho's state laws. The code of Idaho can be amended all the way through the legislature with the sanction of the Governor of the state. This procedure is similar in most of the states of United States of America.
The constitution of Idaho grants the formation of three distinct branches of government. These are the executive, the legislative and the judicial. Idaho follows a bicameral legislature which is nominated from 35 legislative districts, each being stood for by one senator for the senate and two representatives for the House of Representatives.
Ever since the year of 1946, the elected constitutional officials have been elected for a term of four years. The elected officials comprise of the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor, and Secretary of State, Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction.
The government of Idaho has a monopoly on alcohol sales.
Presently, the Governor of Idaho is C. L. "Butch" Otter, who has been in office since the 1st January, 2007. The midterm elections showcase results for the seat of governor and the candidate who is selected, serves a term of four years. The process of electing the governor is undertaken in those years when the election for the President of the United States of America is not in progress.
Idaho's legislature is not held on a full time basis. This is because there is always a possibility of the session being extended, if the need arises, which is generally frequent. Thus legislators of Idaho are known as citizen legislators. This term denotes their position, which is not their primary profession.
The Idaho Law and government have been constantly controlled by the Republican Party since the time of the late 1950s, even though Democratic legislators are more often than not elected from Boise, Pocatello etc.
The Idaho Legislature in general, assembles at the Idaho State Capitol in the city center, Boise. The Legislature gathers once a year from January to mid-March, even though sessions have been well-known to end in May. The Governor of Idaho may also call for special sessions in cases of Emergencies.
Currently, in 2010, both houses of the Idaho Legislature are ruled by the Republican Party with huge majority despite the Democrats managing a win with six seats in the Idaho House in elections held in the year 2006. For the most part in Boise, the Republican Party is in charge of the state by a majority of about 51 seats to 19 seats of the Democrats.
The uppermost court of law is the Supreme Court with other lower courts such as intermediate Appellate Court and the Idaho Court of Appeals given the charge of hearing cases consigned to it by the Supreme Court to look into the law and government of Idaho.
Due to such efficient yet disciplined measures being undertaken, one can say with ease and confidence that the law and government of Idaho are one of the most efficient in the United States of America.