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Georgia History

Georgia History

Georgia State Information

Motto: Dzala ertobashia
(English: "Strength is in Unity"
Anthem: Tavisupleba
(English: "Freedom"
Georgia State Capital
(and largest city)
Tbilisi
41°43′N 44°47′E
Georgia State Official Language(s) Georgian
Georgia State Ethnic Groups  83.8% Georgian, 6.0% Azeri, 5.2% Armenian, 1.5% Russian, 3.5% other
Georgia State Demonym Georgian
Georgia State Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  Georgia State President Mikheil Saakashvili
 -  Georgia State Prime Minister Nikoloz Gilauri
Georgia State Formation
 -  Kingdom of Georgia 1008 
 -  Democratic Republic of Georgia May 26, 1918 
 -  Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic February 25, 1921 
 -  Independence from the Soviet Union Declared
Finalized


April 9, 1991
December 25, 1991 
Georgia State Area
 -  Total 69,700 km2 (120th)
26,916 sq mi 
Georgia State Population
 -  2010 estimate 4,636,400(Statistics Georgia) (118nd)
 -  Georgia State Density 65.1/km2 (128th)
158.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $21.426 billion 
 -  Per capita $4,882 
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $10.896 billion 
 -  Per capita $2,482 
HDI (2007) ▲ 0.778 (medium) (89th)
Georgia State Currency Lari (ლ) (GEL)
Georgia State Time Zone UTC (UTC+4)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+4)
Drives on the Right
Internet TLD .ge
Georgia State Calling Code 995
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State of Georgia Information

Georgia Official Llanguage(s) English
Georgia Demonym Georgian
Georgia Capital Atlanta
Georgia Largest City Atlanta
Georgia Largest Metro Area Atlanta metro area
Georgia Area  Ranked 24th in the US
 - Total 59,425 sq mi
(153,909 km2)
 - Width 230 miles (370 km)
 - Length 298 miles (480 km)
 - % water 2.6
 - Latitude 30.356 - 34.985° N
 - Longitude 80.840 - 85.605° W
Georgia Population  Ranked 9th in the US
 - Total 9,829,211 (2009 est.)
8,186,453 (2000)
- Density 141.4/sq mi  (54.59/km2)
Ranked 18th in the US
 - Median income  $50,861 (23rd)
Georgia Elevation  
 - Highest point Brasstown Bald
4,784 ft  (1,458 m)
 - Mean 591 ft  (180 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean
0 ft  (0 m)
Georgia Before Statehood Province of Georgia
Georgia Admission to Union  January 2, 1788 (4th)
Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue (R)
Georgia Lieutenant Governor Casey Cagle (R)
Georgia Legislature General Assembly
 - Upper house State Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Saxby Chambliss (R)
Johnny Isakson (R)
U.S. House delegation 7 Republicans, 6 Democrats
Georgia Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Georgia Abbreviations GA US-GA
Georgia Website http://www.georgia.gov
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Georgia State History

Ancient History

Middle Palaeolithic caves situated along the length of the Black Sea Coast of Georgia confirms the existence of native folks which existed there somewhere between 100,000 to 50,000 B.C. An archaeological research done on a large scale confirms the presence of a blooming Neolithic civilization in Georgia in the fifth and fourth millennia B.C. This phase of time is characterised by an extremely civilised tradition. At the conclusion of the second and the commencement of the first millennium B.C., two main tribal aggregations were originated: the Diakhi (Taokhi, Tao) and the Qolha (Colchis). The riches and influence of Colchis are still mirrored in the antique Greek legends of the Argonauts. Their aggregation fell to pieces somewhere in 8th century B.C. During the 8th to 7th centuries B.C., the Karts, Mengrels, Chans and Svans emerged on the top in the midst of the Georgian tribes. The developed economy and good geological and weather settings caught the attentions of the Greeks; and subsequently they occupied the Black Sea coast, establishing their colonies.  At the same time, there was rigorous amalgamation of strengths of the Kartlian ethnic group mostly occupying the eastern and the southern Georgia.

Medieval History

Christianity commenced to find its place in Georgia from the 1st century, and turned out to be state religion of Kartli in the 330s and approximately in the similar phase of time it flourished in West Georgia also. This indicated towards an adjustment with regard to the Rome and the Byzantium that would be an important aspect in the development of the national traditions and ethics. During the 400s, 30 nobles were in Kartli. The head of an anti-Iranian fight, King of Kartli, Vakhtang Gorgasali reinforced the Kartlian church by turning it into auto cephalic. Christianity wiped out the aged Georgian writings and started to generate writings of its own, more often than not the paraphrases of Georgian texts.

As a result of this there was a mutiny in the Georgia and Georgians vigorously contributed to the radical proceedings of 1905-1907.

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Modern History

On October 25 1917, the Bolsheviks demonstrated an overthrow in Russia and recognized Soviet power. The most important political parties of the Transcaucasus declined to acknowledge the new authority and on November 17, established a home administration known as the Transcaucasian Commissariat. Quickly the Transcaucasian Federation was recognized, but it was ephemeral. On May 26, 1918, the National Council of Georgia affirmed Georgia’s sovereignty. The most important political parties back then, was the Social Democratic (Menshevik) party, which had a greater part in the administration. Subsequent to the first year of financial and political obstructions, the state of affairs in Georgia turned into more steady, revolutions stopped and the global disagreements were fixed. The Bolsheviks were unsuccessful in aggravating the populace to revolt. Soviet Russia and Georgia entered into a pact on May 7, 1920, as per the terms of which Russia acknowledged the autonomy and dominion of the Georgian Democratic Republic. Free Georgia developed tougher and stronger, and it appeared that expectations of Georgian populace were after a long wait to be recognized but the Bolsheviks were, by now, at the boundaries of Georgia. Subsequent to the supposed Sovietization of Azerbaijan and Armenia in February of 1921, the Bolshevik military marched into Georgia.

Under Communist domination, the stressed country once more developed into the kingdom under alien authority. In 1924, subsequent to a planned rebellion led by Georgian Mensheviks, over 5,000 nationalists were put to death. Regardless of the truth that Stalin and his leader of underground police, Beria, were Georgians, the Georgian populace was offered no official pardon under their harsh government. Three-hundred thousand Georgian armed men were chopped down in the Second World War. But secretly, the efforts for sovereignty never discontinued. This fight acquired the shape of a general nationwide freedom revolt and fetched triumph in the form of independence to nationalistic forces. In 1990, multi party votes were conducted and, on the 9th of April, Parliament affirmed the sovereignty of Georgia. In the spirits of anti-Communist feelings the well known rebel of the Breshnev time, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, was chosen as president. But he was not capable to govern the nation at that vital point of time. Even though he was himself a sufferer of totalitarianism, as a leader he attempted to put up a biased totalitarian government. His impulsive foreign policy, more or less, totally cut off Georgia from the rest of the world. There was no desire or ability on his part to uphold a discussion with the rising opposition.

During the winters of 1991-1992, an armed revolt by the opposition made it vital for Gamsakhurdia to depart from Georgia. Incapable to manage with many global, financial and other national troubles the rebel Military Council established a State Council asking Eduard Shevardnadze, the ex-secretary of the Georgia Communist Party and ex- Soviet Foreign Minister to come up. He was famous for his political insights, personal bravery and guts and global fame. In July 1992, Georgia joined as the 179th associate of the United Nations. Eduard Shevardnadze attained a mind blowing majority of vote in the voting that was carried out in October of 1992, and was acknowledged as the chairman of the Parliament of the Republic of Georgia. On August 24, 1995, an updated Constitution was accepted. On November 5, 1995, presidential voting were conducted Georgia. On November 26, Eduard Shevardnadze was chosen as the President of Georgia.

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Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic Information

Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
1921–1991
Capital Tbilisi
Official language Georgian, Russian, Abkhaz (in the Abkhazian ASSR) and Ossetic (in the South Ossetian AO)
Established
In the Soviet Union:
 - Since
 - Until
February 25, 1921

December 30, 1922
December 26, 1991
Area
 - Total
 - Water (%)
Ranked 10th in the USSR
69,700 km²
negligible
Population
 - Total 
 - Density
Ranked 9th in the USSR
5,337,600 (1989)
62.2/km²
Time zone UTC + 3
Anthem Anthem of Georgian SSR
Medals Order of Lenin
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Georgian Armed (Military) Forces

Georgian Armed Forces
Founded Early 1990s
Current form 1991
Service branches

Georgian Land Forces

Georgian National Guard

Headquarters Tbilisi
Leadership
Supreme Commander-in-chief President Mikheil Saakashvili
Minister of Defense Bacho Akhalaia
Chief of Joint Staff Major General Devi Chankotadze
Manpower
Military age 18-35 years old
Conscription 18 years of age, 18 months
Available for
military service
1,038,736, age 18-49 (2007 est.)
Fit for
military service
827,281, age 18-49  (2007 est.)
Reaching military
age annually
36,000 (2007 est.)
Active personnel 36,553
Reserve personnel 100,000
Deployed personnel 926
Expenditures
Budget 871,228,000 GEL (2010)
Percent of GDP 4% (2010)
Industry
Domestic suppliers Tbilisi Aircraft Manufacturing
Foreign suppliers United States
 Israel
 Turkey
 Czech Republic
 Germany
 United Kingdom
 Ukraine
 Poland
 Bulgaria
 Hungary
 Greece
 Latvia
 France
 Romania
 Lithuania
 Estonia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Serbia
Related Articles
History Russian-Georgian War 2008
War in Abkhazia (1992–1993)
1991–1992 South Ossetia War
Georgia Civil War
Russian-Georgian War 1921
Ranks Georgian military ranks
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Economy of Georgia

Economy of Georgia
Currency 1 Georgian lari (GEL) = 100 tetri
Fiscal Year 1 January - 31 December
Trade Organisations WTO, GUAM and others
Georgia Statistics
GDP $20.75 billion (2009 est.)
GDP Growth -4.9% (2009 est.)
7.9% (2004-2008 average)
GDP per Capita $4,500 (2009 est.) (PPP) (149th)
GDP by Sector agriculture: 12.1%; industry: 25.9%; services: 62% (2009 est.)
Inflation (CPI) 3% (2009 est.)
Population
below Poverty Line
31% (2006)
Gini Index 40.8 (2005)
Labour Force 1.991 million (2009 est.)
Labour Force
by Occupation
agriculture: 55.6%; industry: 8.9%; services: 35.5% (2006 est.)
Unemployment 16.9% (2009 est.)
Main Industries steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese and copper), chemicals, wood products, wine
External
Exports $1.134 billion (2009 est.)
Export Goods scrap metal, wine, mineral water, ores, vehicles, fruits and nuts
Main Export Partners Turkey 19.9%, Azerbaijan 14.6%, Canada 10.3%, Armenia 7.8%, Ukraine 7.3%Bulgaria 7.2% (2009)
Imports $4.378 billion (2009 est.)
Import Goods fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
Main Import Partners Turkey 17.9%, Ukraine 9.5%, Azerbaijan 8.6%, Germany 6.8%, Russia 6.6%, US 5.1% (2009)
FDI Stock $759 million (2009 est.)
Gross External Debt $7.711 billion (31 December 2008)
Public Finances
Public Debt 34.4% of GDP (2009)
Revenues $4.917 billion (2009 est.)
Expenses $5.726 billion (2009 est.)
Economic Aid ODA $309.8 million (2005 est.)
Foreign Reserves $1.08 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
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Georgian Cuisine

Georgian Appetizers

  • Muzhuzhi
  • Khachapuri
  • Lobiani
  • Kutchmatchi
  • Pkhaleuli
  • Abkhazura
  • Tsotskhali
  • Satsivi
  • Lobio
  • Nadughi
  • Matsoni
  • Badrijani Nigvzit
  • Ajapsandali
  • Kupati
  • Soko
  • Ispanakhi
  • Jonjoli
  • Mtchadi
  • Tarti
  • Khizilala- Caviar.
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Georgian Salads

  • Katmis
  • Tevzis
  • Kvertskhis
  • Kiborchkhalis
  • Sagazapkhulo
  • Khakhvis
  • Lobios
  • Tcharkhlis
  • Kartophilis
  • Satatsuris
  • Staphilos
  • Kombostos
  • Sokos
  • Ispanakhis
  • Kitris
  • Tarkhunis
  • Khilis
  • Boloki tcharkhlit
  • Kombosto vashlit
  • Ispanakhi Matsvnit
  • Tcharkhali vashlit
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Georgian Soups

  • Balbis
  • Nivris
  • Matsvnis
  • Pomidvris
  • Mukhudos
  • Satatsuris
  • Kharcho
  • Arjakelis
  • Shindis
  • Dos
  • Gogris
  • Domkhlis
  • Bostneulis
  • Sokos
  • Ispanakhis
  • Qvelis
  • Puris Kharsho
  • Chikhirtma
  • Katmis
  • Staphilos
  • Makhokhis
  • Lobios
  • Gholos

Georgian Vegetables

  • Sazapkhulo Tolma
  • Lobiani
  • Lobio Nigvzit
  • Mtsvane Lobio
  • Soko Naghebit
  • Badrijani Brinjit
  • Kartopili Nigvzit
  • Kartopili Kvartskhit
  • Badrijani Nigvzit
  • Ajapsandali
  • Badrijani Mtsvanilit
  • Kombosto Nigvzit
  • Soko
  • Ispanakhi
  • Ispanakhi Kvertskhit
  • Badrijnis Borani
  • Satatsuri Nigvzit
  • Badrijnis Khizilala
  • Ekala Nigvzit
  • Gogris Guphta
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Georgian Fish

  • Tarti Tetri ghvinit
  • Shemtsvari Tarti
  • Tsvera Nigvzit da Brotseulit
  • Loko Kindzmatshi
  • Tsotskhali
  • Tevzi Bazheshi
  • Loko Tsiteli Ghvinit
  • Kephali
  • Shebolili Kephali
  • Zutkhi Shemtsvari
  • Zutkhis Mtsvadi
  • Zutkhi Kaklis photolshi
  • Tevzi Pamidvrit
  • Kalmakhi Tarkhunit
  • Kibo Mokharshuli
  • Kibo Kindzit
  • Kibo Tetri Ghvinit
  • Khizilala
  • Chakhokhbili Oraguli
  • Oraguli Nigvzit
  • Kobri Nigvzit da Brotseulit

Georgian Poultry

  • Tabaka
  • Chkhmeruli
  • Chakhokhbili
  • Kutchmatchi
  • Tsitsila Shindit
  • Tsitsila Abkhazurd
  • Satsivi
  • Chikhirtma
  • Ikhvis Chakhokhbili
  • Ikhvi Komshit
  • Bati Shavi kliavit
  • Indauris garo
  • Ikhvi Bostneulit
  • Katami Brinjit
  • Katami Gatenili Kuch-gvidzlit
  • Satsivi Kvertskhit
  • Katmis Mkhali
  • Katami Nivrit
  • Shemtsvari Indauri
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Georgian Meat

  • Muzhuzhi
  • Betchi
  • Kutchmatchi
  • Abkhazura
  • Ku
  • Lori
  • Chakapuli
  • Kababi
  • Mtsvadi
  • Basturma
  • Guphta
  • Shemtsvari Gotchi
  • Qaurma
  • Khashlama
  • Tolma
  • Jonjoli
  • Khinkali
  • Mokharshuli Gotchi
  • Chanakhi
  • Shilaplavi
  • Mokharshuli ena
  • Dzekhvi

Georgian Desserts

  • Churchkhela
  • Gozinaki
  • Phelamushi
  • Kada
  • Nazuki
  • Paska
  • Vashlis Namtskhvari
  • Alublis Ghvezeli
  • Pakhlava (Baklava)
  • Taphlis kveri
  • Vardis Muraba
  • Kaklis Muraba
  • Alublis Muraba
  • Komshis Muraba
  • Sazamtros Muraba
  • Martqvis Torti
  • Shakarlama Tkhilit
  • Nigvziani
  • Kishmishiani
  • Phenovani
  • Qaviani
  • Shokoladiani
  • Khilis Torti
  • Nigvzis Torti

Georgian International Rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace Global Peace Index 134 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 89 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 66 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 90 out of 133
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Public Holidays in Georgia

Date English name
January 1 New Year's Day
January 7 Orthodox Christmas
January 19 Baptism Day of our Lord Jesus Christ
March 3 Mother's Day
March 8 International Women's Day
April 9 Day of National Unity
Moveable Orthodox Good Friday, Great Saturday, Easter Sunday and Easter Monday of Bright Week
May 9 Day of Victory over Fascism
May 12 Saint Andrea the First Day
May 26 Independence Day
August 28 Saint Mary's Day
October 14 Day of Svetitskhoveli Cathedral (in Mtskheta)
November 23 Saint George's Day
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Georgia State Symbols

Amphibian Green Tree Frog
Art Museum Georgia Museum of Art
Atlas Atlas of Georgia
Ballet Atlanta Ballet
Beef Cook Off "Shoot the Bull"
Bird Brown Thrasher
Botanical Garden The State Botanical Garden of Georgia
Butterfly Tiger Swallowtail
Commemorative Plates Georgia Historical Plates
Creed Georgian's Creed
Crop Peanut
Fish Largemouth Bass
Flag State Flag
Flower Cherokee Rose
Folk Dance Square Dancing
Folk Festival The Georgia Folk Festival
Folk Life Play "Swamp Gravy"
Fossil Shark Tooth
Fruit Peach
Game Bird Bobwhite Quail
Gem Quartz
Historic Drama "The Reach of Song"
Insect Honeybee
Marine Mammal Right Whale
Mineral Staurolite
Motto "Wisdom, Justice & Moderation"
Musical Theatre "Jekyll Island Musical Theatre Festival"
Peanut Monument Turner County Peanut Monument
Poet Laureate David Bottoms
Pork Cook Off "Slosheye Trail Big Pig Jig"
'Possum Pogo 'Possum
Poultry "The Poultry Capitol of the World"
Prepared Food Grits
Railroad Museum Historic Railroad Shops
Reptile Gopher Tortoise
School Plains High School
Seal Great Seal
Seashell Knobbed Whelk
Song "Georgia on My Mind"
Tartan Georgia Tartan
Theatre The Springer Opera House
Tree Live Oak
Transportation History Museum Southeastern Railway Museum
Vegetable Vidalia Sweet Onion
Waltz "Our Georgia"
Wildflower Azalea
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