Capital : Yerevan
Currency : Armenian dram
- Conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
- Conventional short form: Armenia
- Local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
- Local short form: Hayastan
- Former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic
- The native Armenian name for the country is Hayk‘.
- Hayk is believed to be the descendent of Noah.
- Iranians added the suffix “stan” and the country began to be called “Hayastan”.
- The exonym Armenia was first recorded in the Old Persian Behistun inscription in 515 BC.
- It was then referred to as Armina.
- The Greeks used the term “Armenians” for the first time in 476 BC.
- Armenia has evidence of one of the world’s oldest civilizations.
- Mention of Mount Ararat (where Noah rested his ark) has been made in the Bible.
- Armenia was the first country to embrace Christianity as early as 300 A.D.
- During the 6th century B.C., Armenians settled in the kingdom of Urartu.
- The empire flourished under the rule of Tigrane the Great and extended from the Caspian to the Mediterranean seas.
- The region underwent many invasions which caused a mix of cultures and races.
- Armenians managed to preserve their culture and traditions through the years.
- During World War I, the Ottoman Turks conquered parts of Armenia and inflicted atrocities upon the people.
- Thousands of Armenians were massacred and deported to deserts. Many more died of starvation.
- The Armenian massacre is considered the first genocide in the 20th century.
- After the Turks were defeated in World War I, the independent Republic of Armenia was established on May 28, 1918.
- It was annexed by the Soviet Army on Nov. 29, 1920.
- Reorganization took place in 1936 and Armenia became a separate constituent republic of the USSR.
- Armenia declared its independence after the collapse of Soviet Union on Sept. 23, 1991.
- In 1988, Armenia and Azerbaijan went through a territorial dispute over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh.
- The dispute led to a war (1992-1994) which resulted in a large number of casualties.
- The region is currently under Armenia’s control.
- It is estimated that 60% of Armenians have migrated to other countries like US, Russia, Georgia, France, Iran, Lebanon, Syria, Argentina, and Canada.
- Ter-Petrosyan was Armenia's first president independence in 1991.
- Claims of rigged voting led to a mass protest and a 20-day state of emergency was declared on March 1, 1991.
- The population of Armenia has rapidly declined post-independence due to increased emigration.
- 97.9% of the population is ethnic Armenian.
- Minorities include Yazidis, Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Kurds, Georgians, Greeks, and Assyrians.
- Vlachs, Mordvins, Ossetians, Udis, and Tats also exist in small numbers.
- Pre-independence, there was a large number of Azerbaijanis in Armenia.
- Armenian Diaspora is mainly settled in Russia, France, Iran, the United States, Georgia, Syria, Lebanon, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Greece, Cyprus, Israel, Poland and Ukraine.
- Many Armenians have also settled in other European and middle-eastern countries.
- Armenians form the larger part of the population in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh.
Government and Politics:
- Armenia is run by a republic government.
- Administrative divisions consist of 11 provinces namely: Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor and Yerevan.
- 21 September (Independence Day) is observed as a national holiday.
- The Constitution was adopted by nationwide referendum on 5 July 1995.
- Constitutional amendments were implemented after a nationwide referendum on 27 November 2005.
- The Legal system is based on civil law system.
- Armenia has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction.
- The President is the chief of state.
- The Prime Minister is the head of government.
- The Council of Ministers is appointed by the prime minister. The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term.
- The prime minister is appointed by the president based on majority or plurality support in parliament.
- When National Assembly refuses to accept their program the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign.
The Legislative branch is represented by a unicameral National Assembly (Parliament). The Judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court and Court of Cassation (Appeals Court).
- Armenia has a distinct alphabet system and language of its own.
- The alphabet was invented by Saint Mesrob Mashtots in 405 AD.
- The alphabet has thirty-eight letters in all.
- English and Russian are widely spoken languages.
- The Armenian national anthem is “Mer Hayrenik”.
- Armenia’s has a strong art culture that dates back to the Middle Ages.
- The National Art Gallery in Yerevan, The Modern Art Museum, the Children’s Picture Gallery and the Martiros Saryan Museum display some of the most valuable art collections.
- Orchestra and classical musical forms are very popular and highly regarded.
- Opera and live musical performances are commonly held.
- Yerevan's Vernisage offers a wide variety of arts and crafts objects like woodcarving, antiques, fine lace, and the hand-knotted wool carpets and kilims.
- Gold and other jewellery made from Obsidian is made by traditional Armenian goldsmiths.
- Russian relics and souvenirs are also widely available in the market.
- Armenia also has several historical and heritage sites from the Medieval, Iron Age, Bronze Age and Stone Age.
- There are also a large number of churches and fortresses from the rich historical past of the country.
- Hospitality and socializing is an integral part of Armenian culture.
- Social gatherings usually involve elaborate meals with wine, alcohol or cognac.
- Guests are treated warmly and fed generously.
- Weddings are traditional and celebrated with Armenian cognac.
- The period between an engagement and a wedding may extend upto 1 year.
- Since its independence, Armenia has been developing rapidly on the economical front.
- Armenia faced a financial setback after its conflict with Azerbaijan.
- The IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program implemented by the government in 1994 has contributed to the economic growth.
- There has been marked decline in poverty, inflation and currency fluctuation.
- Post Soviet-era, Armenia has shifted to small scale agriculture from large scale industrial base.
- Nuclear power plants at Metsamor were closed after the 1988 Spitak Earthquake.
- Metsamor generates over 40 % of the country's electricity.
- A natural gas pipeline is being laid down between Iran and Armenia.
- Armenia’s mineral deposits include copper, gold and bauxite.
- The highest yielding export commodities are Pig iron, unwrought copper, and other nonferrous metals.
- International aid, non-resident Armenians and foreign trade have also contributed to the economic development.
- Unemployment still remains a pressing issue in the country.
- GDP (purchasing power parity) as calculated in 2007 was $17.15 billion.
- 26.5% of the population is below poverty line (2006 est.)
- The main Agricultural produce comprises of fruit (especially grapes), vegetables and livestock.
- Major industries are diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing and brandy.
- Export commodities include pig iron, unwrought copper, nonferrous metals, diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs and energy.
- Import commodities include natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs and diamonds.
- Armenia has a modernized telecommunications system.
- Telephone and cellular services are reliable and well established in most parts of the country.
- There are two cellular service providers in Armenia.
- There are 25 radio broadcast stations in all.
- A total of 48 television broadcast stations exist which also include two public networks and some Russian channels.
- Internet facilities are reasonably available.
- Armenia is connected by 12 airports.
- The railway network spreads over 839 km.
- Roadways span over a total of 7,700 km.
99.4% of the total Armenian population is literate. Armenia has a high quality of educational infrastructure at all levels. The American University of Armenia has graduate programs in a wide variety of subjects.
Armenia is a landlocked country surrounded by:
- Turkey (east)
- Georgia (south)
- Azerbaijan (west)
- Iran and the Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan (north)
Armenia Related Topics:
Armenia Tourist Attractions:
- Victory Park
- Cafesjian Museum of Art
- Blue Mosque
- History Museum of Aremenia
- Khor Virap
- Yerevan Zoo
- Erebuni Museum
- Dalma Garden Mall
- Mount Aragats
- Republic Square
- National Gallery of Aremenia
- Tatev Monastery