Immigration laws are the laws regarding the immigration of foreigners to the country and controlling who and how a foreigner gets into the place and what time they can spent in the place. The law may vary from country to country and place to place; while some countries have very strict laws regarding the immigration of foreigners, some may have liberal laws allowing the stay and the entry into the new state made easier.
The first immigration laws created in the United States were during the colonial rule where the independent colonies created laws to naturalize the immigration of people from outside getting into their colony. They introduced the Naturalization Act of 1790 which gave the very first rules to be followed to grant the national citizenship in USA. Many years later the Chinese exclusion Act was passed in the country so as to control the immigration of the Chinese people into the nation. The number of immigrants permitted in a year based on their nationality was decided by the Immigration Act of 1924 and the Immigration and Naturalization service was set by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952. At present the United States of America which is the country permitting the most number of immigrants to become the permanent resident every year, is providing two types of Visa, one for those wishing to stay on a long term basis and the other for short term, business trip or tourist visa.
Governor Jan Brewer signed the Arizona Immigration Law SB1070 on the 23rd of April 2010. Arizona SB 1070, the legislative Act in the state of Arizona is considered as the strictest law against illegal immigration into any state in the nation. This law which is a bit stringent on the immigrant's part has faced a lot of opposition from the people from the very beginning of its proposal. Even the President of the United States, Barrack Obama is not happy with the law and referred to it as the 'Irresponsibility o Arizona's part'.
According to this law, any person 'reasonably suspected' to be an illegal immigrant into the state, the law enforcement officers are required to enquire into the matter and check the suspected persons immigration status. And any foreign immigrants are liable to be charged and jailed for misdemeanor if in any case they do not have their proper documentation with them. Even the lawful immigrants are liable to such charges if they fail to produce the necessary documents on being asked for. The suspected immigrant without the proper documents can be released from jail only after a federal government pursuant confirms the legal immigration Status of the so charged. The initial violation of the law may call for a minimum fine of 500 dollars and subsequent violation of this law may call for a thousand dollar fine.
This law also calls for the Arizonan citizen to sue the municipal government if they find that these laws are not enforced strictly enough by them. This clause was added into the law so as to restrict any local, county or state officials from limiting the enforcement of the law anywhere below the full extent of the strictness of the law enforcement.
The illegal immigration has been a very serious issue in the state of Arizona and other border states. A number of bills very similar to the present, SB 1070 have been vetoed in the past few years when the former governor, Janet Napolitano was in power. But these did not get above the initial stages of bill making and after she left her post, so as to serve as the federal secretary of Homeland Security, the bills also was left. But it was with the killing of the rancher Robert Krentz, who was suspected to be killed by an illegal immigrant that the anti legalization of free immigration became a serious issue under discussion.
The present law was coined with the purpose of responding to the illegal immigration into the nation along the southern Border States mainly Arizona. This law considers itself as a response to the problem and the failure of the federal Government to control the illegal immigration along the border. The main consideration behind coining this law is that there are around 450,000 immigrants in Arizona without any proper documentation getting in each year and this might lead to a concern regarding the violence along the Mexican border.
This law has been opposed by most of the people throughout the United States and even by the President of the Nation. The opponents do agree with the fact that the federal government is not taking the necessary actions against the illegal immigration but they do oppose the SB 1070 as it is considered a farfetched and horrible solution against this illegal immigration. A number of court suits were filed against this law by individuals and groups just days after it was passed. And they claim that the law violates a number of basic human rights and infringes on the constitutional provision of right to travel freely. This law is considered to bring about even racial discrimination and is thought to be very harsh on the immigrants who flow into the country in response of the demand on labor market. A lot of protest and boycotts were also organized against this potential civil right violation throughout the country.