Arizona History

Arizona History

Arizona Information Public Universities in Arizona
Arizona History Private Colleges and Universities in Arizona
Arizona Religion Community Colleges
Arizona Counties Professional Sports Teams
Arizona Arizona Images

Arizona Information

State of Arizona
Arizona Official Language(s) English
Arizona Spoken Language(s) English 74.1%,
Spanish 19.5%,
Navajo 1.9%
Arizona Demonym Arizonan, Arizonian
Arizona Capital Phoenix
Arizona Largest City Phoenix
Arizona Largest Metro Area Phoenix Metropolitan Area
Arizona Area  Ranked 6th in the US
 - Total 113,998 sq mi
(295,254 km2)
 - Width 310 miles (500 km)
 - Length 400 miles (645 km)
 - % water 0.32
 - Latitude 31° 20′ N to 37° N
 - Longitude 109° 3′ W to 114° 49′ W
Arizona Population  Ranked 15th in the US
 - Total 6,595,778 (2009 est.)
- Density 55.8/sq mi  (21.54/km2)
Ranked 33rd in the US
Arizona Elevation  
 - Highest point Humphreys Peak
12,637 ft  (3,851 m)
 - Mean 4,100 ft  (1,250 m)
 - Lowest point Colorado River
70 ft  (22 m)
Arizona Before Statehood Arizona Territory
Arizona Admission to Union  February 14, 1912 (48th)
Arizona Governor Jan Brewer (R)
Arizona Lieutenant Governor none until next election
(Terry Goddard (Attorney General),
currently 2nd in line
Arizona Legislature Arizona Legislature
 - Upper house Senate
 - Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators John McCain (R)
Jon Kyl (R)
U.S. House delegation 5 Democrats, 3 Republicans (list)
Arizona Time zones  
 - Most of state Mountain: UTC-7
 - Navajo Nation Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Arizona Abbreviations AZ Ariz. US-AZ
Arizona Website
Arizona State Symbols
Animate Insignia
Arizona Amphibian Arizona Tree Frog
Arizona Bird(s) Cactus Wren
Arizona Butterfly Two-tailed Swallowtail
Arizona Fish Apache trout
Arizona Flower(s) Saguaro Cactus blossom
Arizona Mammal(s) Ring-tailed Cat
Arizona Reptile Arizona Ridge-Nosed Rattlesnake
Arizona Tree Palo verde
Inanimate Insignia
Arizona Colors Blue, Old Gold
Arizona Fossil Petrified wood
Arizona Gemstone Turquoise
Arizona Mineral Fire Agate
Arizona Rock Petrified wood
Arizona Ship(s) USS Arizona
Arizona Slogan(s) The Grand Canyon State
Arizona Soil Casa Grande
Arizona Song(s) Arizona (song), Arizona March Song

Arizona History

Arizona is among the four corner state of the United States and is located at the south west region of the country. It is the 48th and the last state admitted to the American Union. This beautiful state also called The Copper State or The Grand Canyon State has a number of tourist attraction spots including the famous Grand Canyon, parks, monuments and very magnificent forest. Arizona State with the capital city Phoenix is the sixth largest state with a population of around 7 million people.

Arizona State in the Prehistoric Times

According to the archeological and geological evidences, the regions of Arizona was inhabited by mammoth hunters who were the first natives to set their foot on the land of Arizona back in 10,000 BC or 16, 000 BCE. Their remains have been found in the south eastern part of the State near the Pedro Valley. These people were wanderers and did not settle in the place or practice any form of agriculture. After the ice age was over the mammoth started to get extinct as the temperature started to get higher and higher. Slowly, Arizona was transferred to an arid land with minimal vegetation and the people lived there to survive this condition.

Later these prehistoric people started on agriculture and started to live in cave and to use tools for different purpose. Though agriculture started to be practiced, they never abandoned hunting and foraging. The cultures that flourished in Arizona in the First millennium includes the Anasazi, who arose around 1200 AD, the Hohokam, the farmers who constructed elaborate irrigation facility and the Mogollan, who first put down the maize cultivation in the highlands of Mexico and eastern Arizona. All of these civilizations rose to the height round 1200 A D but by 1400 BC both the civilization disappeared entirely. And it is believed that these prehistoric civilizations came to an end due to a great and long lasting drought in the area.  In the second millennium it the Sinagua and the Salado culture rose into prominence but after a few hundred years these culture also disappeared completely.

The Spanish Exploration

When America was discovered by Columbus, the people present there were the ancestors of the present day inhabitants. And the recorded history of the Arizona state began after Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan friar explored became the first European to explore Arizona. Though the first European visitor to this land might have came in the year 1528, the visit of Marcos de Nisa in the year  1538 in search of the Seven Cities of Gold is an important turning point in the history  of Arizona. A year after his visit, another gold seeker Francisco Vásquez de Coronado visited the state to confirm the presence of Gold as reported by Marcos de Niza.. Later many other Christian missionaries followed with the aim of introducing Christianity to the place where the religion has not yet entered. Parde kino was one such missionary who was successful in spreading the religion in many parts of this place. He founded the Tumacocori mission at the north of Nogales. He also developed a chain of mission surrounding the Pimeria Alta. And after the Pleubo Revolt in the year 1680, the Spaniards were hurried out of Mexico. But the area was re conquered by Spain fourteen years later in 1694.

Mexican Arizona

In the year 1821, Arizona with Mexico went for war against Spain and won back their independence. But the later colonization of Arizona came from Mexico making Arizona a part of it. The first American exploration of Arizona occurred after the St. Louis to Santa Fe trade route was established. Mexican American war broke of later against the American rule. And in the year, 1848 February 2nd, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed under which 70 % of the land under Arizona was ceded to U S along with a number of other territories in exchange for $ fifteen million. And two years later these region formed the New Mexico Territory with the major part of Arizona and the present day Mexico.

Split of the New Mexican Territory

Starting from the year 1853, the whole of the present day Arizona was included under the New Mexican Territory. And in 1861, during the period of the Civil War, this territory near the region of Messila and Tucson declared itself independent from the US rule and joined the Confederacy. But in 1862 the Confederate territory of Arizona was returned to the New Mexican Territory after it was captured by the Union Troupes. And it was in the year 1863 that the New Mexican Territory was split by the United States to create the Arizonan Territory or the present day state of Arizona, by introducing a north south split.

Moving of the U S presidios during the war left the state vulnerable to the attack from their Native Americans and the hostilities between the natives and the American settlers which started in 1861 ended after five years in 1866. After this the state started to improve the agricultural and irrigational facilities and the period of economic growth started and it later formed the U S state on February 14, 1912.

Arizona Religion

  • Roman Catholic – 28%
  • Protestant
    • Mainline – 15%
    • Evangelical – 23%
    • Other Protestant – 2%
  • LDS (Mormon) – 6%
  • Buddhist – 1%
  • Jewish – 1%
  • Other Religions – 6%
  • Unaffiliated – 20%

Arizona Counties

County Name County Seat Year Founded 2000 Population Percent of Total Area (sq. mi.) Percent of Total
Apache St. Johns 1879 69,423 1.17 % 11,218 9.84 %
Cochise Bisbee 1881 117,755 1.98 % 6,219 5.46 %
Coconino Flagstaff 1891 116,320 1.96 % 18,661 16.37 %
Gila Globe 1881 51,335 0.86 % 4,796 4.21 %
Graham Safford 1881 33,489 0.56 % 4,641 4.07 %
Greenlee Clifton 1909 8,547 0.14 % 1,848 1.62 %
La Paz Parker 1983 19,715 0.33 % 4,513 3.96 %
Maricopa Phoenix 1871 3,880,181 65.34 % 9,224 8.09 %
Mohave Kingman 1864 155,032 2.61 % 13,470 11.82 %
Navajo Holbrook 1895 97,470 1.64 % 9,959 8.74 %
Pima Tucson 1864 843,746 14.21 % 9,189 8.06 %
Pinal Florence 1875 179,727 3.03 % 5,374 4.71 %
Santa Cruz Nogales 1899 36,381 0.65 % 1,238 1.09 %
Yavapai Prescott 1865 167,517 2.82 % 8,128 7.13 %
Yuma Yuma 1864 160,026 2.69 % 5,519 4.84 %
Totals: 15   5,938,664   113,997  

Public Universities in Arizona

  • Arizona State University, (Sun Devils) Tempe/Phoenix/Mesa
  • Northern Arizona University, (Lumberjacks) Flagstaff/Yuma
  • University of Arizona, (Wildcats) Tucson/Sierra Vista and UA Agricultural Center in Yuma

Private Colleges and Universities in Arizona

  • American Indian College
  • Art Center College of Design
  • Art Institute of Tucson
  • Art Institute of Phoenix
  • A.T. Still University
  • Collins College
  • Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
  • Grand Canyon University
  • International Baptist College
  • Lamson College
  • Midwestern University
  • Northcentral University
  • Ottawa University
  • University of Phoenix
  • Phoenix School of Law
  • Prescott College
  • Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine
  • Southwestern College
  • Thunderbird School of Global Management
  • University of Advancing Technology
  • Western Governors University
  • Western International University

Community Colleges

  • Arizona Western College
  • Central Arizona College
  • Cochise College
  • Coconino Community College
  • Diné College
  • Eastern Arizona College
  • Chandler-Gilbert Community College
  • Estrella Mountain Community College
  • GateWay Community College
  • Glendale Community College
  • Maricopa County Community College District
  • Mesa Community College
  • Paradise Valley Community College
  • Phoenix College
  • Rio Salado Community College
  • Scottsdale Community College
  • South Mountain Community College
  • Mohave Community College
  • Northland Pioneer College
  • Pima Community College
  • Yavapai College

Professional Sports Teams

Club Sport League Championships
Arizona Cardinals Football National Football League 2 (1926, 1948)
Arizona Diamondbacks Baseball Major League Baseball 1 (2001)
Phoenix Coyotes Ice hockey National Hockey League 0
Phoenix Suns Basketball National Basketball Association 0
Arizona Rattlers Arena Football Arena Football League 2 (1994, 1997)
Arizona Sundogs Ice hockey Central Hockey League 1 (2007–08)
Phoenix Mercury Basketball Women's National Basketball Association 2 (2007, 2009)
Tucson Toros Baseball Minor League Baseball  
Yuma Scorpions Baseball Golden Baseball League 1 (2007)

State Symbols

  • Arizona state Amphibian: Arizona Treefrog (Hyla eximia)
  • Arizona state Bird: Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)
  • Arizona state Butterfly: Two-tailed Swallowtail (Papilio multicaudata)
  • Arizona state Colors: Federal Blue and old gold
  • Arizona state Fish: Arizona Trout (Oncorhynchus gilae apache)
  • Arizona state Flag: Flag of the State of Arizona
  • Arizona state Flower: Saguaro blossom (Carnegiea gigantea)
  • Arizona state Fossil: Petrified wood
  • Arizona state Gemstone: Turquoise
  • Arizona state Mammal: Ringtail (Bassariscus astutus)
  • Arizona state Motto: Ditat Deus (Latin God enriches)
  • Arizona state Neckwear: Bola tie
  • Arizona state Reptile: Arizona Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi)
  • Arizona state Seal: Great Seal of the State of Arizona
  • Arizona state Slogan: Grand Canyon State
  • Arizona state Songs: Arizona March Song and Arizona (song)
  • Arizona state Tree: Blue Palo Verde (Parkinsonia florida)