Argentina

Capital: Buenos Aires
National anthem: Argentine National Anthem
President: Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Currency: Argentine peso
Official language: Spanish Language
Continent: Americas, South America
Destinations: Buenos Aires, Mendoza, San Carlos de Bariloche

Name of the Country:

  • Conventional long form: Argentine Republic
  • Conventional short form: Argentina
  • Local long form: Republica Argentina
  • Local short form: Argentina

Etymology:

  • The Latin word “argentums” which means silver, name “Argentina” ” is derived from “argentums”.
  • Ruy Díaz de Guzmán, author of “Historia del descubrimiento, población, y conquista del Río de la Plata” referred to the region as “Tierra Argentina” or Land of Silver in 1612.

History:

  • Argentina was discovered in 1516 by Juan Díaz de Solis.
  • The country developed under Spanish colonial rule.
  • The now capital city, Buenos Aires was established in 1580.
  • Invading British forces were expelled in 1806–1807.
  • After Spain was conquered by Napoléon in1808, the Argentineans set up their own government in 1810.
  • On July 9, 1816, independence was formally declared.
  • Argentina played a neutral role during the outbreak of both World Wars.
  • It declared war on the Axis powers on March 27, 1945.
  • Juan D. Perón won the presidential elections of 1946 and 1951.
  • His wife, Eva Duarte de Perón acted as de facto minister of health and labor.
  • Perón's increasing authoritarianism led to a coup by the armed forces and he was exiled in 1955.
  • Argentina was under military dictatorship for many years with brief intervals of constitutional government rule.
  • Perón returned to power in 1973 and his third wife, Isabel Martínez de Perón, was elected vice president.
  • She took over as the chief of state after her husband’s death.
  • Terrorist attacks and severe inflation struck the nation in 1975.
  • On March 24, 1976, a military group lead by Lt. Gen. Jorge Rafael Videla imposed martial law by means of a “dirty war”.
  • On April 2, 1982, Galtieri invaded the British-held Falkland Islands but was defeated in the attempt.
  • Presidential elections were held on Oct. 1983 and were won by Raúl Alfonsín, leader of the Radical Civic Union.
  • Due to inflation and unemployment, the Radical Civic Union was succeeded by the Peronist Party in May 1989.
  • Peronist Néstor Kirchner became Argentina's president in May 2003.
  • Since then, Argentina’s economy has experienced a rapid growth rate.
  • In October 2007, First Lady Cristina Fernández de Kirchner was elected president.

Argentina Flag

Demographics:

  • The population of Argentina is a rich blend of locals and immigrants.
  • 90% of the population is of European descent, especially Italy and Spain.
  • Minorities include Amerindians, mestizo , Armenians, Asians and Welsh.
  • Argentina's Jewish community comprises of Ashkenazi Jews and Sephardic groups from Syria.
  • Argentina also has a large Arab community of Syrian and Lebanese origin.
  • Argentina is home to a large number of illegal migrants from Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru, Ecuador, and Romania.
  • Argentina's population is very highly urbanized.

Government and Politics:

  • Argentina is run by a republic government.
  • Administrative divisions comprise of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city- Buenos Aires.
  • The provinces are: Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur and Tucuman. Revolution Day is observed as a national holiday on 25 May (1810).
  • The Constitution was framed on 1 May 1853 and has been amended many times since 1860.
  • The Legal system is a mixture of US and West European legal systems.
  • Argentina has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction.
  • The president is both the chief of state and head of government. The Cabinet is appointed by the president.
  • The president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term.
  • The Legislative branch is bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consisting of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.
  • The Judicial branch is represented by the Supreme Court or Corte Suprema.

Culture:

  • Argentine culture is an amalgam of European and traditional elements.
  • Major cities are however, largely Europeanized.
  • The Gauchos are known for their traditional, rustic lifestyle.
  • Argentina has a rich literary history and has produced some of the most notable writers, especially in Latin American Literature.
  • Argentine literature offers glimpses of nationalism, modernist movement and vanguardism.
  • Argentina is a major producer of motion pictures.
  • The world's first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina.
  • Argentine cinema was at its prime time between 1930-1950.
  • Many Spanish films have won international acclaim and awards in recent times.
  • Buenos Aires is one of the great capitals of theater.
  • The Teatro Colon is a national landmark for opera and classical performances.
  • Corrientes Avenue is an internationally recognized center for theatrical arts.
  • Argentina has also produced internationally notable painters like Oscar Agustín Alejandro Schulz Solari, Candido Lopez, Emilio Pettoruti, Antonio Berni, Fernando Fader, and Guillermo Kuitca.
  • Lucio Fontana, Leon Ferrari and Ciruelo have been highly acclaimed sculptors.
  • Argentine food has French, Spanish, German and Italian influences.
  • The cuisine is very similar to that of European countries.
  • Staple foods include empanadas, facturas, locro, Dulce de Leche and chorizo.
  • Yerba Mate or local green tea is Argentina’s national beverage.
  • Red meat forms a large part of the diet.
  • Argentina is the fifth largest wine producer in the world with Malbec as its specialized variety.
  • Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Argentina
  • Argentina’s national team has won the FIFA World Cup twice.
  • Volleyball, basketball and rugby union football, hockey, polo, golf and motorsports are also popular.
  • The official national sport of the country is Pato which is played with a six-handle ball on horseback.
  • Tango is an important part of Argentina’s musical culture.
  • The modern Tango dance evolved from the traditional Milonga dance.
  • Argentine rock, called rock nacional, is the most popular music among youth.
  • European classical music is well represented in Argentina.
  • Argentine folk music has a wide range of styles and themes.
  • Over 90% of the population is Roman Catholic.
  • Evangelical and Protestant Churches are also followed by some.
  • Argentina hosts the largest Jewish population in all of Latin America.
  • The country also has a large Muslim community.
  • Spanish is the official language of Argentina.
  • The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense which is spoken primarily in the basin of the Río de la Plata.
  • Standard German and Italian are also widely spoken.
  • Indigenous languages like Guaraní , Quechua , Aymara and Welsh are spoken by some communities.
  • English, Portuguese and French are taught in school.

Economy:

  • Argentina owes a large part of its economy to its rich natural resources.
  • A highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector and a diversified industrial base also contribute to the economical growth.
  • Argentina suffered a financial setback during the 20th century and ran into large depts. and economical depression.
  • In 2001, Interim President Adolfo Rodriguez Saa declared a default on the government's foreign debt.
  • The GDP saw a gradual rise after Eduardo Duhalde took office in 2002.
  • Inflation hit an all time high during 2006 and "voluntary" price agreements with businesses as well as export taxes and restraints were implemented.
  • Multi-year price freezes on electricity and natural gas rates caused limitations in industrial activity and blackouts in 2007.
  • The GDP (purchasing power parity) as calculated in 2007 was $523.7 billion.
  • 14% of the population is unemployed.
  • Agricultural produce includes sunflower seeds, soybeans, grapes, lemons, corn, peanuts, wheat and livestock, tobacco, tea.
  • The main industries ate food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy and steel.
  • Exported commodities include soybeans and derivatives, vehicles, corn, petroleum and gas, wheat.
  • Imported commodities include motor vehicles, machinery, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals and plastics.

Infrastructure:

  • Telephone and cellular services are highly developed in Argentina.
  • All major cities are connected with fiber-optic cable trunk lines.
  • Microwave radio relay, domestic satellite systems and broadband services are rapidly expanding.
  • Most networks are digitalized.
  • There are 42 main television broadcast stations and over 1000 radio broadcast stations.
  • Internet facilities are widespread and readily available.
  • There are a total of 1,272 airports in Argentina of which 154 have paved runways.
  • Railway network spreads over 31, 902 km.
  • Roadways and expressways span over 231,374 km.
  • Main ports and terminals are located at Arroyo Seco, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Bahia Blanca, Rosario and San Lorenzo-San Martin, Punta Colorada.

Education:

  • Since its independence, Argentina has rapidly developed in the education sector.
  • It has a high global ranking in terms of education system and literacy.
  • 97% of the population is literate (2003 est.)
  • Education is compulsory for children upto 17 years of age.
  • The schooling system comprises of primary and secondary school levels.
  • In 2006, the school system was standardized and a free, modern system was implemented.
  • The 1918 University reform shaped the current tripartite representation of most public universities.
  • School education is funded completely by the government.
  • Graduate and higher studies may often require personal expenditure.
  • There are many private school institutions in the primary, secondary and university levels.
  • Private schools and institutions are now favored due to better quality of education.
  • There are thirty-eight public universities across the country along with many private ones.
  • The University of Buenos Aires is the largest in Argentina.
  • Other important universities are, Córdoba, Rosario, La Plata and UTN (National Technological University) .

Neighbour Countries:

Argentina is surrounded by:

  • Southern Atlantic Ocean (east and south)
  • Paraguay ( north)
  • Bolivia (north)
  • Brazil (northeast)
  • Uruguay ( northeast)
  • Chile (west and south)

Airports in Argentina:

Almirante Zar Airport Oran Airport Reconquista Airport San Juan Airport Tandil Airport
Alto Rio Senguerr Airport Oscar Reguera Airport Resistencia Airport San Julian Airport Tartagal Airport
Arpt Jorge Newbery Airport Pajas Blancas Airport Rincon de los Sauces Airport San Luis Airport Tres Arroyos Airport
Benj Matienzo Airport Parana Airport Rio Cuarto Airport San Rafael Airport Valcheta Airport
Brigadier Hector Ruiz Airport Paso De Los Libres Airport Rio Grande Airport Santa Cruz Airport Valle Del Conlara Airport
Caleta Olivia Airport Pehuajo Airport Rio Hondo Airport Santa Fe Airport Viedma Airport
Camba Punta Airport Perito Moreno Airport Rio Mayo Airport Santa Rosa Airport Villa Dolores Airport
Capitan Vicente Almando Airport Posadas Airport Rio Turbio Airport Santa Teresita Airport Villa Gesell Airport
Carmen De Patagones Airport Pres Roque Saenz Pena Airport Saenz Pena Airport Santiago Del Estero Airport Villa Mercedes Airport
Catamarca Airport Puerto Deseado Airport San Antonio Oeste Airport Sierra Grande Airport Zapala Airport
Cataratas Airport El Cadillal Airport Fisherton Airport International Airport Los Menucos Airport
Caviahue Airport El Calafate Airport Gen Belgrano Airport Islas Malvinas Argentinas International Airport Malargue Airport
Ceres Airport El Maiten Airport General Pico Airport Jose De San Martin Airport Maquinchao Airport
Chapelco Airport El Palomar Airport General Roca Airport Junin Airport Mar Del Plata Airport
Charata Airport El Plumerillo Airport General Villegas Airport La Cumbre Airport Mercedes Airport
Clorinda Airport El Pucu Airport Gobernador Gregores Airport La Plata Airport Miramar Airport
Colonia Catriel Airport El Tehuelche Airport Goya Airport Lago Argentino Airport Monte Caseros Airport
Colonia Sarmiento Airport Eldorado Airport Gualeguaychu Airport Las Heras Airport Necochea Airport
Comandante Espora Airport Esquel Airport Ingeniero Jacobacci Airport Las Lomitas Airport Neuquen Airport
Comodoro Rivadavia Airport Ezeiza Ministro Pistarini Airport Internacional Airport Loncopue Airport Olavarria Airport
Concordia Airport Curuzu Cuatia Airport Cutral Airport El Bolson Airport  

Geographical Settings:

  • Argentina is located in Southern South America between Chile and Uruguay.
  • It borders the Southern Atlantic Ocean.
  • Its geographic coordinates are 34 00 S, 64 00 W.
  • Argentina spans a total area of 2,766,890 sq km.
  • The coastline is 4,989 km long. Climate is mostly temperate - arid in southeast and sub Antarctic in southwest.
  • Terrain comprises of rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, and the rugged Andes along the western border.
  • The highest peak is Cerro Aconcagua standing at 6,960 m.
  • Natural resources include fertile plains of the pampas, zinc, lead, copper, iron ore, tin, petroleum and uranium, manganese.
  • 10.03% of the total land is arable. San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza are earthquake prone areas in the Andes.
  • Pamperos area experiences violent windstorms and heavy floods occasionally.
  • Industrialization and deforestation has caused pollution and environmental degradation in the recent years.
  • Marine Life Conservation is an important environmental concern.
  • Argentina is the second-largest country in South America after Brazil.
  • Argentina has diverse geophysical landscapes ranging from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south.

Freedom:

Argentina gained freedom from Spain on 9 July 1816.

Eminent Personalities:

  • José de San Martín (1778–1850) - Freedom activist.
  • Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (1811–88) - statesman and essayist
  • Gen. Bartolomé Mitre (1821–1906) - president and literary writer.
  • Mitre - Publisher and writer.
  • José Hernández (1834–86) - literary figure, poet
  • Ricardo Güiraldes (1886–1927) - novelist
  • Enrique Rodríguez Larreta (1875–1961) - Latin American novelist
  • Bernardo Alberto Houssay (1887–1971) - scientist, Nobel Laureate
  • Luis Federico Leloir (1906–87) - scientist, Nobel Laureate
  • Alejandro Korn (1860–1936) - philosopher
  • Carlos Saavedra Lamas (1878–1959) - Lawyer, Nobel Laureate

Famous for:

  • Argentina is famous for producing some of the best football players in the world.
  • The Argentine barbecue, asado and parrillada, is popular all across the globe.
  • Wine tourism in the Province of Mendoza attracts hoards of international tourists every year.
  • Tango is learnt and practiced widely in all countries.

Total Population:

  • According to a 2008 census, the total population of Argentina was estimated to be 40,677,348 (July 2008 est.)
  • The annual population growth rate is 0.917% (2008 est.)
  • Birth rate: 16.32 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
  • Death rate: 7.54 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Argentina Related Topics:

» Argentina Agencies » Sports in Argentina » Argentina Maps » Colleges and Universities in Argentina » Aerolineas Argentinas Airlines

Argentina Tourist Attractions:

  • Iguazu Falls
  • Plaza de Mayo
  • Perito Moreno Glacier
  • Los Glaciares National Park
  • Fitz Roy
  • Quebrada De Humahuaca