Capital: Buenos Aires
National anthem: Argentine National Anthem
President: Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Currency: Argentine peso
Official language: Spanish Language
Continent: Americas, South America
Destinations: Buenos Aires, Mendoza, San Carlos de Bariloche
Name of the Country:
- Conventional long form: Argentine Republic
- Conventional short form: Argentina
- Local long form: Republica Argentina
- Local short form: Argentina
- The Latin word “argentums” which means silver, name “Argentina” ” is derived from “argentums”.
- Ruy Díaz de Guzmán, author of “Historia del descubrimiento, población, y conquista del Río de la Plata” referred to the region as “Tierra Argentina” or Land of Silver in 1612.
- Argentina was discovered in 1516 by Juan Díaz de Solis.
- The country developed under Spanish colonial rule.
- The now capital city, Buenos Aires was established in 1580.
- Invading British forces were expelled in 1806–1807.
- After Spain was conquered by Napoléon in1808, the Argentineans set up their own government in 1810.
- On July 9, 1816, independence was formally declared.
- Argentina played a neutral role during the outbreak of both World Wars.
- It declared war on the Axis powers on March 27, 1945.
- Juan D. Perón won the presidential elections of 1946 and 1951.
- His wife, Eva Duarte de Perón acted as de facto minister of health and labor.
- Perón's increasing authoritarianism led to a coup by the armed forces and he was exiled in 1955.
- Argentina was under military dictatorship for many years with brief intervals of constitutional government rule.
- Perón returned to power in 1973 and his third wife, Isabel Martínez de Perón, was elected vice president.
- She took over as the chief of state after her husband’s death.
- Terrorist attacks and severe inflation struck the nation in 1975.
- On March 24, 1976, a military group lead by Lt. Gen. Jorge Rafael Videla imposed martial law by means of a “dirty war”.
- On April 2, 1982, Galtieri invaded the British-held Falkland Islands but was defeated in the attempt.
- Presidential elections were held on Oct. 1983 and were won by Raúl Alfonsín, leader of the Radical Civic Union.
- Due to inflation and unemployment, the Radical Civic Union was succeeded by the Peronist Party in May 1989.
- Peronist Néstor Kirchner became Argentina's president in May 2003.
- Since then, Argentina’s economy has experienced a rapid growth rate.
- In October 2007, First Lady Cristina Fernández de Kirchner was elected president.
- The population of Argentina is a rich blend of locals and immigrants.
- 90% of the population is of European descent, especially Italy and Spain.
- Minorities include Amerindians, mestizo , Armenians, Asians and Welsh.
- Argentina's Jewish community comprises of Ashkenazi Jews and Sephardic groups from Syria.
- Argentina also has a large Arab community of Syrian and Lebanese origin.
- Argentina is home to a large number of illegal migrants from Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru, Ecuador, and Romania.
- Argentina's population is very highly urbanized.
Government and Politics:
- Argentina is run by a republic government.
- Administrative divisions comprise of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city- Buenos Aires.
- The provinces are: Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur and Tucuman. Revolution Day is observed as a national holiday on 25 May (1810).
- The Constitution was framed on 1 May 1853 and has been amended many times since 1860.
- The Legal system is a mixture of US and West European legal systems.
- Argentina has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction.
- The president is both the chief of state and head of government. The Cabinet is appointed by the president.
- The president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term.
- The Legislative branch is bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consisting of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.
- The Judicial branch is represented by the Supreme Court or Corte Suprema.
- Argentine culture is an amalgam of European and traditional elements.
- Major cities are however, largely Europeanized.
- The Gauchos are known for their traditional, rustic lifestyle.
- Argentina has a rich literary history and has produced some of the most notable writers, especially in Latin American Literature.
- Argentine literature offers glimpses of nationalism, modernist movement and vanguardism.
- Argentina is a major producer of motion pictures.
- The world's first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina.
- Argentine cinema was at its prime time between 1930-1950.
- Many Spanish films have won international acclaim and awards in recent times.
- Buenos Aires is one of the great capitals of theater.
- The Teatro Colon is a national landmark for opera and classical performances.
- Corrientes Avenue is an internationally recognized center for theatrical arts.
- Argentina has also produced internationally notable painters like Oscar Agustín Alejandro Schulz Solari, Candido Lopez, Emilio Pettoruti, Antonio Berni, Fernando Fader, and Guillermo Kuitca.
- Lucio Fontana, Leon Ferrari and Ciruelo have been highly acclaimed sculptors.
- Argentine food has French, Spanish, German and Italian influences.
- The cuisine is very similar to that of European countries.
- Staple foods include empanadas, facturas, locro, Dulce de Leche and chorizo.
- Yerba Mate or local green tea is Argentina’s national beverage.
- Red meat forms a large part of the diet.
- Argentina is the fifth largest wine producer in the world with Malbec as its specialized variety.
- Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Argentina
- Argentina’s national team has won the FIFA World Cup twice.
- Volleyball, basketball and rugby union football, hockey, polo, golf and motorsports are also popular.
- The official national sport of the country is Pato which is played with a six-handle ball on horseback.
- Tango is an important part of Argentina’s musical culture.
- The modern Tango dance evolved from the traditional Milonga dance.
- Argentine rock, called rock nacional, is the most popular music among youth.
- European classical music is well represented in Argentina.
- Argentine folk music has a wide range of styles and themes.
- Over 90% of the population is Roman Catholic.
- Evangelical and Protestant Churches are also followed by some.
- Argentina hosts the largest Jewish population in all of Latin America.
- The country also has a large Muslim community.
- Spanish is the official language of Argentina.
- The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense which is spoken primarily in the basin of the Río de la Plata.
- Standard German and Italian are also widely spoken.
- Indigenous languages like Guaraní , Quechua , Aymara and Welsh are spoken by some communities.
- English, Portuguese and French are taught in school.
- Argentina owes a large part of its economy to its rich natural resources.
- A highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector and a diversified industrial base also contribute to the economical growth.
- Argentina suffered a financial setback during the 20th century and ran into large depts. and economical depression.
- In 2001, Interim President Adolfo Rodriguez Saa declared a default on the government's foreign debt.
- The GDP saw a gradual rise after Eduardo Duhalde took office in 2002.
- Inflation hit an all time high during 2006 and "voluntary" price agreements with businesses as well as export taxes and restraints were implemented.
- Multi-year price freezes on electricity and natural gas rates caused limitations in industrial activity and blackouts in 2007.
- The GDP (purchasing power parity) as calculated in 2007 was $523.7 billion.
- 14% of the population is unemployed.
- Agricultural produce includes sunflower seeds, soybeans, grapes, lemons, corn, peanuts, wheat and livestock, tobacco, tea.
- The main industries ate food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy and steel.
- Exported commodities include soybeans and derivatives, vehicles, corn, petroleum and gas, wheat.
- Imported commodities include motor vehicles, machinery, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals and plastics.
- Telephone and cellular services are highly developed in Argentina.
- All major cities are connected with fiber-optic cable trunk lines.
- Microwave radio relay, domestic satellite systems and broadband services are rapidly expanding.
- Most networks are digitalized.
- There are 42 main television broadcast stations and over 1000 radio broadcast stations.
- Internet facilities are widespread and readily available.
- There are a total of 1,272 airports in Argentina of which 154 have paved runways.
- Railway network spreads over 31, 902 km.
- Roadways and expressways span over 231,374 km.
- Main ports and terminals are located at Arroyo Seco, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Bahia Blanca, Rosario and San Lorenzo-San Martin, Punta Colorada.
- Since its independence, Argentina has rapidly developed in the education sector.
- It has a high global ranking in terms of education system and literacy.
- 97% of the population is literate (2003 est.)
- Education is compulsory for children upto 17 years of age.
- The schooling system comprises of primary and secondary school levels.
- In 2006, the school system was standardized and a free, modern system was implemented.
- The 1918 University reform shaped the current tripartite representation of most public universities.
- School education is funded completely by the government.
- Graduate and higher studies may often require personal expenditure.
- There are many private school institutions in the primary, secondary and university levels.
- Private schools and institutions are now favored due to better quality of education.
- There are thirty-eight public universities across the country along with many private ones.
- The University of Buenos Aires is the largest in Argentina.
- Other important universities are, Córdoba, Rosario, La Plata and UTN (National Technological University) .
Argentina is surrounded by:
- Southern Atlantic Ocean (east and south)
- Paraguay ( north)
- Bolivia (north)
- Brazil (northeast)
- Uruguay ( northeast)
- Chile (west and south)
Airports in Argentina:
- Argentina is located in Southern South America between Chile and Uruguay.
- It borders the Southern Atlantic Ocean.
- Its geographic coordinates are 34 00 S, 64 00 W.
- Argentina spans a total area of 2,766,890 sq km.
- The coastline is 4,989 km long. Climate is mostly temperate - arid in southeast and sub Antarctic in southwest.
- Terrain comprises of rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, and the rugged Andes along the western border.
- The highest peak is Cerro Aconcagua standing at 6,960 m.
- Natural resources include fertile plains of the pampas, zinc, lead, copper, iron ore, tin, petroleum and uranium, manganese.
- 10.03% of the total land is arable. San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza are earthquake prone areas in the Andes.
- Pamperos area experiences violent windstorms and heavy floods occasionally.
- Industrialization and deforestation has caused pollution and environmental degradation in the recent years.
- Marine Life Conservation is an important environmental concern.
- Argentina is the second-largest country in South America after Brazil.
- Argentina has diverse geophysical landscapes ranging from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south.
Argentina gained freedom from Spain on 9 July 1816.
- José de San Martín (1778–1850) - Freedom activist.
- Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (1811–88) - statesman and essayist
- Gen. Bartolomé Mitre (1821–1906) - president and literary writer.
- Mitre - Publisher and writer.
- José Hernández (1834–86) - literary figure, poet
- Ricardo Güiraldes (1886–1927) - novelist
- Enrique Rodríguez Larreta (1875–1961) - Latin American novelist
- Bernardo Alberto Houssay (1887–1971) - scientist, Nobel Laureate
- Luis Federico Leloir (1906–87) - scientist, Nobel Laureate
- Alejandro Korn (1860–1936) - philosopher
- Carlos Saavedra Lamas (1878–1959) - Lawyer, Nobel Laureate
- Argentina is famous for producing some of the best football players in the world.
- The Argentine barbecue, asado and parrillada, is popular all across the globe.
- Wine tourism in the Province of Mendoza attracts hoards of international tourists every year.
- Tango is learnt and practiced widely in all countries.
- According to a 2008 census, the total population of Argentina was estimated to be 40,677,348 (July 2008 est.)
- The annual population growth rate is 0.917% (2008 est.)
- Birth rate: 16.32 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
- Death rate: 7.54 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Argentina Related Topics:
Argentina Tourist Attractions:
- Iguazu Falls
- Plaza de Mayo
- Los Glaciares National Park