The longitudinal and latitudinal extent of Alabama is 84° 51' W to 88° 28' W and 30° 13' N to 35° N respectively. From end to end, the state of Alabama runs 330 miles in length and 190 miles in width at its farthest points.
Tennessee borders the state on the north and Georgia on the east. Mississippi is its western neighbor while Florida and the Gulf of Mexico border Alabama on the south.
With 52,423 square miles as its official count of land, Alabama includes 1,673 square miles of areas covered with water.
At 2,407 feet above sea level, Cheaha Mountain stands as the tallest point in the state of Alabama. However, the point where Alabama meets the Gulf of Mexico stands as its lowest point and is situated at sea level.
The major rivers that flow through the state are Tombigbee, Alabama, Tennessee and Chattahoochee. The following lakes are also found in the state: Guntersville, Wilson, Martin, West Point and Lewis Smith.
The Cumberland Plateau occupies the region south of the northern border of the state. A narrow strip on either side of the Tennessee River is an area of lowlands that are 500 to 800 feet in height. The northeast of these highlands are home to rugged, steep mountain sides and valleys. In the center of these landforms is a spectacular feature known as The Little Mountain, which rises 1000 feet above sea level.
The Appalachian Valley occupies the region southeast to the Cumberland Plateau. The total are of this feature is about 8000 square miles and is primarily a limestone belt. Following the terrain further south of the Appalachian valley, Alabama is host to the Piedmont plateau which crosses the border from the north east and extends into Randolph and Clay counties.
The rest of Alabama is home to the Coastal Plain. It rises to about 600 feet and becomes lower in elevation towards the southeast.
Alabama experiences the humid subtropical climate and has four different types of soil types spanning the great land. The Timber Belt has sandy soil, while the Black Prairie has a mix of sand and loam which is rich in limestone. The Old Land Area in Alabama is full of resistant rocks where soil is available in varying degrees of fertility. The Cereal Belt however, can boast of the richest soils in the land where the red clay and the dark loamy soil of the river valley are strewn all over the place.