History of Handball Sports:
Handball evolved in its modern form during the 19th century in Denmark. The first set of rules for field handball was drawn up in 1917 by Max Heiser. The International Amateur Handball Federation (IAHF) was set up in 1928. In 1938 the first Field Handball World Championship was played in Germany. The International Handball Federation was formed in 1946. Handball was introduced to the Olympic Games in 1972. Women’s handball competitions were introduced in 1976.
Playing Field for Handball Sports:
- The playing court is rectangular in shape.
- Length: 40 meters
- Width: 20 meters
- It consists of two goal areas and a playing area.
- The longer boundary lines are called side lines.
- The shorter lines are called goal lines (between the goalposts) or outer goal lines (on either side of the goal).
- The safety zone around the court should be at least 1 meter along the side lines and 2 meters behind the goal lines.
- The playing conditions on the field should be uniform for both teams.
- The goals must have an interior height of 2 meters and a width of 3 meters.
- The goal lines shall be 8cm wide between the goalposts and all other lines shall be 5cm wide.
- The goal area is defined by the goal-area line or 6 meter line.
- The 7-meter line is a 1 meter long line directly in front of the goal.
- The goalkeeper's restraining line (the 4-meter line) is a 15cm long line, directly in front of the goal.
Equipments for Handball Sports:
Rules for Handball Sports:
Playing Time for Handball Sports
- The game is played in two halves of 30 minutes each.
- The half-time break is 10 minutes long.
- For youth teams, the playing time is 25 minutes for each half.
- In case of a tie, overtime is played after a 5 minute break.
- The overtime period consists of 2 halves of 5 minutes, with a 1-minute half-time break.
- If the game is again tied, a second period is played after a 5-minute break.
- In case of repeated ties, the 7-meter-throwing as tie-breaker may be used to determine the winner.
The Ball required for Handball Sports:
- The ball is made of leather or a synthetic material.
- It must be spherical.
- The surface must not be shiny or slippery.
The ball specifications for different categories are as follows:
- 58-60cm and 425-475g (IHF Size 3) for Men and for Male Youth (over age 16)
- 54-56cm and 325-375g (IHF Size 2) for Women, Female Youth (over age 14), and Male Youth (age 12 to 16)
- 50-52cm and 290-330g (IHF Size 1) for Female Youth (age 8 to 14) and Male Youth (age 8 to 12).
The Team for Handball Sports:
- A team can have a maximum of 14 players.
- A maximum of 7 players can be present on the court at a given time.
- At any given time, one player should be present at the position of goalkeeper.
- Court players and goalkeepers can interchange positions.
- A team must have at least 5 players on the court at the start of the game.
- The game may continue even if a team is reduced to less than 5 players on the court.
- The referee shall decide when and why the game should be suspended.
Scoring for Handball Sports:
- A goal is scored when the entire ball has completely crossed the goal line.
- The referee confirms the score by two short whistles and a hand signal.
- A goal shall be awarded if there is a violation of the rules by a defender but the ball still goes into the goal.
- A goal cannot be awarded if a referee or the timekeeper has interrupted the game before the ball has completely crossed the goal line.
- A goal shall be awarded to the opponents if a player plays the ball into his own goal.
Punishments for Handball Sports:
Warnings in Handball Sports:
A warning may be issued in the following circumstances:
- Fouls and unsportsmanlike conduct.
- Faulty substitution
- Undue interference from a player sitting in the substitution area.
Disqualification in Handball Sports:
A player may be disqualified in the following circumstances:
- Unsportsmanlike behavior after receiving warnings and suspensions.
- Causing injury to the opponent.
- Seriously offensive behavior on the field.
- A third suspension to the same player.
Exclusion in Handball Sports:
- Exclusion may be given to a player found guilty of assault.
- The referee indicates the exclusion by crossing his hands over his head.
- The team must continue with one player less in the team.
- The excluded player must not be replaced and must leave both the court and the substitution area immediately.
- An exclusion must be explained by the referees to the relevant authorities.
Handball Sports Events:
The following events are included in the program for Beijing Olympics 2008:
- Handball Men
- Handball Women
Handball Sports Venues in Beijing Olympics 2008:
- The handball event of the 29th Olympic Games will be held in Beijing from August 9-24, 2008.
- The preliminary competitions will be held at Olympic Sports Center Gymnasium.
- The finals will be held at the National Indoor Stadium.
- Men 168 (12 teams x 14 players)
- Women 168 (12 teams x 14 players)