Nobel Prize Winners in USA

Year Name Rational
2012David J. WinelandFor ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring & manipulation of individual quantum systems
2011Saul PerlmutterFor the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae
Brian P. Schmidt
Adam G. Riess
2009George E. Smith
2008Yoichiro NambuFor the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics
2006John C. MatherFor their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation
George F. Smoot
2005Roy J. GlauberFor his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence
John L. HallFor their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique
2004David J. GrossFor the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
H. David Politzer
Frank Wilczek
2002Raymond Davis, Jr.For pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos
Riccardo GiacconiFor pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources
2001Eric Allin CornellFor the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates
Carl Edwin Wieman
2000Raymond Davis, Jr.For his part in the invention of the integrated circuit
1998Robert B. LaughlinFor their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations
Daniel Chee Tsui
1997Steven ChuFor development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.
William Daniel Phillips
1996David Morris LeeFor their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3
Douglas D. Osheroff
Robert Coleman Richardson
1995Martin Lewis PerlFor the discovery of the tau lepton and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
Frederick ReinesFor the detection of the neutrino and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
1994Clifford Glenwood ShullFor the development of the neutron diffraction technique and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"
1993Russell Alan HulseFor the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
1990Henry Way Kendall
1989Norman Foster RamseyFor the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks
Hans Georg DehmeltFor the development of the ion trap technique
Jerome I. FriedmanFor their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics
1988Leon Max LedermanFor the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino
Melvin Schwartz
Jack Steinberger
1983William Alfred FowlerFor his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe
1982Kenneth G. WilsonFor his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions
1981Nicolaas BloembergenFor their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy
Arthur Leonard Schawlow
1980James Watson CroninFor the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons
Val Logsdon Fitch
1979Sheldon Lee GlashowFor their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current
Steven Weinberg
1978Arno Allan PenziasFor their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation
Robert Woodrow Wilson
1977Philip Warren AndersonFor their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
1976Burton RichterFor their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind
Samuel Chao Chung Ting
1975Leo James Rainwater
1973Ivar Giaever
1972John BardeenFor their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory
Leon Neil Cooper
John Robert Schrieffer
1969Murray Gell-MannFor his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions
1968Luis Walter AlvarezFor his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis
1967Hans Albrecht BetheFor his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars
1965Richard Phillips FeynmanFor their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles
Julian Schwinger
1964Charles Hard Townes
1963Eugene Paul WignerFor his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles
Maria Goeppert-MayerFor their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure
1961Robert HofstadterFor his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons
1960Donald Arthur GlaserFor the invention of the bubble chamber
1959Owen ChamberlainFor their discovery of the antiproton
1956John BardeenFor their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect
Walter Houser Brattain
William Bradford Shockley
1955Willis Eugene LambFor his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum
Polykarp KuschFor his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron
1952Felix BlochFor their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith
Edward Mills Purcell
1946Percy Williams BridgmanFor the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics
1944Isidor Isaac RabiFor his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei
1943Otto SternFor his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton
1939Ernest LawrenceFor the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements
1937Clinton Joseph DavissonFor their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals
1936Carl David AndersonFor his discovery of the positron
1927Arthur Holly ComptonFor his discovery of the effect named after him
1923Robert Andrews MillikanFor his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect
1907Albert Abraham MichelsonFor his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid

Chemistry Nobel Prize Winners in USA

Year Name Rational
2015Paul L. ModrichFor mechanistic studies of DNA repair
2014Eric BetzigFor the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy
William MoernerFor the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy
2013Arieh WarshelFor the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems
2012Robert LefkowitzFor studies of G-protein-coupled receptors
Brian KobilkaFor studies of G-protein-coupled receptors
2010Richard F. HeckFor palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis
Ei-ichi Negishi
2009Venkatraman RamakrishnanFor studies of the structure and function of the ribosome
Thomas A. Steitz
2008Martin Chalfie
Roger Y. Tsien
2006Roger D. KornbergFor his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription
2005Robert H. Grubbs
Richard R. Schrock
2004Irwin Rose
2003Peter AgreFor discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes & for the discovery of water channels
Roderick MacKinnonFor discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes & for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels
2002John B. FennFor the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules & for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules
2001William S. KnowlesFor their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions
K. Barry SharplessFor his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions
2000Alan J. HeegerFor their discovery and development of conductive polymers
Alan G MacDiarmid
1998Walter KohnFor his development of the density-functional theory
1997Paul D. BoyerFor their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
1996Robert F. Curl Jr.For their discovery of fullerenes
Richard E. Smalley
1995F. Sherwood Rowland
1994George A. OlahFor his contribution to carbocation chemistry
1993Kary B. MullisFor contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry & for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method
1992Rudolph A. MarcusFor his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems
1990Elias James CoreyFor his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis
1989Thomas R. Cech
1987Donald J. CramFor their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity
Charles J. Pedersen
1986Dudley R. HerschbachFor their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes
Yuan T. Lee
1985Herbert A. HauptmanFor their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures
Jerome Karle
1984Robert Bruce MerrifieldFor his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix
1983Henry TaubeFor his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes
1981Roald Hoffmann
1980Paul BergFor his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA
Walter GilbertFor their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids
1979Herbert C. BrownFor their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis
1976William N. LipscombFor his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding
1974Paul J. FloryFor his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules
1972Christian B. AnfinsenFor his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation
Stanford MooreFor their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule
William H. Stein
1968Lars OnsagerFor the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes
1966Robert S. MullikenFor his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method
1965Robert Burns WoodwardFor his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis
1961Melvin CalvinFor his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants
1960Willard Frank LibbyFor his method to use carbon-4 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science
1955Vincent du VigneaudFor his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone
1954Linus Carl PaulingFor his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances
1951Edwin Mattison McMillanFor their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements
Glenn Theodore Seaborg
1949William Francis GiauqueFor his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures
1946James Batcheller SumnerFor his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized
John Howard NorthropFor their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form
Wendell Meredith Stanley
1934Harold Clayton UreyFor his discovery of heavy hydrogen
1932Irving LangmuirFor his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry
1914Theodore William RichardsFor his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements

Economics Nobel Prize Winners in USA

Year Name Rational
2013Robert J. ShillerFor their empirical analysis of asset prices.
Lars Peter HansenFor their empirical analysis of asset prices.
2012Alvin E. Roth
Lloyd S. ShapleyFor the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design.
2011Thomas J. SargentFor their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy
Christopher A. Sims
2010Peter A. DiamondFor their analysis of markets with search frictions
Dale T. Mortensen
2009Elinor OstromFor her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons
Oliver WilliamsonFor his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm
2008Paul KrugmanFor his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity
2007Leonid HurwiczFor having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory
Eric Maskin
Roger Myerson
2006Edmund PhelpsFor his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy
2005Thomas Schelling
2004Edward C. Prescott
2003Robert F. EngleFor methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)
2002Vernon L. SmithFor having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms
2001George AkerlofFor their analyses of markets with asymmetric information
Michael Spence
Joseph E. Stiglitz
2000James HeckmanFor his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples
Daniel McFaddenFor his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice
1997Robert C. MertonFor a new method to determine the value of derivatives.
1996William Vickrey
1995Robert Lucas, Jr.For having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy
1994John HarsanyiFor their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games.
John Forbes Nash
1993Robert FogelFor having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change
Douglass North
1992Gary BeckerFor having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including non-market behaviour
1990Harry MarkowitzFor their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics
Merton Miller
William Forsyth Sharpe
1987Robert SolowFor his contributions to the theory of economic growth
1986James M. BuchananFor his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making
1982George StiglerFor his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation
1981James TobinFor his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices
1980Lawrence KleinFor the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies
1979Theodore SchultzFor their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries.
1978Herbert SimonFor his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations
1976Milton FriedmanFor his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilisation policy
1975Tjalling Koopmans
1973Wassily LeontiefFor the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems
1972Kenneth Arrow
1971Simon KuznetsFor his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development
1970Paul SamuelsonFor the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science

Physiology or Medicine Nobel Prize Winners in USA

Year Name Rational
2013James E. RothmanFor their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
Randy W. SchekmanFor their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
Thomas C. SüdhofFor their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
2011Bruce A. BeutlerFor their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity
2009Elizabeth H. BlackburnFor the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase
Carol W. Greider
Jack W. Szostak
2007Mario R. CapecchiFor their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells.
Oliver Smithies
2006Andrew Z. FireFor their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
Craig C. Mello
2004Richard AxelFor their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
Linda B. Buck
2003Paul LauterburFor their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging
2002H. Robert Horvitz
2001Leland H. HartwellFor their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle
2000Paul Greengard
Eric R. Kandel
1999G?nter BlobelFor the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell
1998Robert F. FurchgottFor their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system
Louis J. Ignarro
Ferid Murad
1997Stanley B. PrusinerFor his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection
1995Edward B. LewisFor their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development
Eric F. Wieschaus
1994Alfred G. GilmanFor their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells
Martin Rodbell
1993Phillip A. Sharp
1992Edwin G. Krebs
1990Joseph E. MurrayFor their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease
E. Donnall Thomas
1989J. Michael BishopFor their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes
Harold E. Varmus
1988Gertrude B. Elion
George H. Hitchings
1986Stanley CohenFor their discoveries of growth factors
1985Michael S. BrownFor their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism
Joseph L. Goldstein
1983Barbara McClintockFor her discovery of mobile genetic elements
1981Roger W. SperryFor his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres
David H. HubelFor their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system
1980George D. Snell
1979Allan M. CormackFor the development of computer assisted tomography
1978Daniel Nathans
Hamilton O. Smith
1977Roger GuilleminFor their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain
Andrew V. Schally
Rosalyn YalowFor the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones
1976Baruch S. BlumbergFor their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases
D. Carleton Gajdusek
1975David BaltimoreFor their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell
Howard Martin Temin
1974George E. Palade
1972Gerald M. EdelmanFor their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies
1971Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.For his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones
1970Julius AxelrodFor their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation
1969Max Delbr?ckFor their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses
Alfred D. Hershey
Salvador E. Luria
1968Robert W. HolleyFor their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis
Marshall W. Nirenberg
1967Haldan Keffer Hartline
George Wald
1966Peyton RousFor his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses
Charles Brenton HugginsFor his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer
1964Konrad BlochFor their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
1962James Dewey Watson
1961Georg von BekesyFor his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea
1959Arthur KornbergFor their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid
1958George Wells BeadleFor their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events
Edward Lawrie Tatum
Joshua LederbergFor his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria
1956Andre Frederic CournandFor their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system
Dickinson W. Richards
1954John Franklin EndersFor their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue
Frederick Chapman Robbins
Thomas Huckle Weller
1953Fritz Albert LipmannFor his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism
1952Selman Abraham WaksmanFor his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis
1950Philip Showalter HenchFor their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects
Edward Calvin Kendall
1947Carl Ferdinand CoriFor their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen
Gerty Theresa Cori, nee Radnitz
1946Hermann Joseph MullerFor the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation
1944Joseph ErlangerFor their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres
Herbert Spencer Gasser
1943Edward Adelbert DoisyFor his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K
1934George Hoyt WhippleFor their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia
George Richards Minot
William Parry Murphy
1933Thomas Hunt MorganFor his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity

Peace Nobel Prize Winners in USA

Year Name Rational
2009Barack ObamaFor his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples.
2007Al Gore
2002Jimmy CarterFor his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development
1997Jody Williams
1986Elie WieselChairman of The President's Commission on the Holocaust""
1985International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear WarFor "authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare. The committee believes that this in turn contributes to an increase in the pressure of public opposition to the proliferation of atomic weapons and to a redefining of priorities, with greater attention being paid to health and other humanitarian issues."
1973Henry KissingerFor the 973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces
1970Norman E. BorlaugInternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Center; "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."
1964Martin Luther King, Jr.Campaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence."
1962Linus Carl PaulingFor his campaign against nuclear weapons testing
1953George Catlett MarshallGeneral President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of the Marshall Plan""
1950Ralph BuncheProfessor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 948
1947American Friends Service Committee
1946Emily Greene BalchFormerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
John Raleigh MottChairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations
1945Cordell HullFor his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization
1931Jane AddamsFor her social reform work and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"
Nicholas Murray ButlerFor his promotion of the Briand-Kellogg pact and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"
1929Frank B. KelloggFor the Kellogg-Briand pact, whose signatories agreed to settle all conflicts by peaceful means and renounced war as an instrument of national policy
1925Charles G. DawesFor work on the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 925
1919Woodrow WilsonFor his crucial role in establishing the League
1912Elihu RootFor his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court
1906Theodore RooseveltFor his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case

Literature Nobel Prize Winners in USA

Year Name Language Rational
1993Toni MorrisonEnglishWho in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality
1987Joseph BrodskyEnglish and RussianFor an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity
1978Isaac Bashevis SingerYiddishFor his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life
1976Saul BellowEnglishFor the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work
1962John SteinbeckEnglishFor his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception
1954Ernest HemingwayEnglishFor his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style
1949William FaulknerEnglishFor his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel
1938Pearl S. BuckEnglishFor her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces
1936Eugene O'NeillEnglishFor the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy
1930Sinclair LewisEnglishFor his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters