Year |
Name |
Rational |

2012 | David J. Wineland | For ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring & manipulation of individual quantum systems |

2011 | Saul Perlmutter | For the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae |

| Brian P. Schmidt | |

| Adam G. Riess | |

2009 | George E. Smith | |

2008 | Yoichiro Nambu | For the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics |

2006 | John C. Mather | For their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation |

| George F. Smoot | |

2005 | Roy J. Glauber | For his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence |

| John L. Hall | For their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique |

2004 | David J. Gross | For the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction |

| H. David Politzer | |

| Frank Wilczek | |

2002 | Raymond Davis, Jr. | For pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos |

| Riccardo Giacconi | For pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources |

2001 | Eric Allin Cornell | For the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates |

| Carl Edwin Wieman | |

2000 | Raymond Davis, Jr. | For his part in the invention of the integrated circuit |

1998 | Robert B. Laughlin | For their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations |

| Daniel Chee Tsui | |

1997 | Steven Chu | For development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. |

| William Daniel Phillips | |

1996 | David Morris Lee | For their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3 |

| Douglas D. Osheroff | |

| Robert Coleman Richardson | |

1995 | Martin Lewis Perl | For the discovery of the tau lepton and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" |

| Frederick Reines | For the detection of the neutrino and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" |

1994 | Clifford Glenwood Shull | For the development of the neutron diffraction technique and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" |

1993 | Russell Alan Hulse | For the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation |

| Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. | |

1990 | Henry Way Kendall | |

1989 | Norman Foster Ramsey | For the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks |

| Hans Georg Dehmelt | For the development of the ion trap technique |

| Jerome I. Friedman | For their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics |

1988 | Leon Max Lederman | For the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino |

| Melvin Schwartz | |

| Jack Steinberger | |

1983 | William Alfred Fowler | For his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe |

1982 | Kenneth G. Wilson | For his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions |

1981 | Nicolaas Bloembergen | For their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy |

| Arthur Leonard Schawlow | |

1980 | James Watson Cronin | For the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons |

| Val Logsdon Fitch | |

1979 | Sheldon Lee Glashow | For their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current |

| Steven Weinberg | |

1978 | Arno Allan Penzias | For their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation |

| Robert Woodrow Wilson | |

1977 | Philip Warren Anderson | For their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems |

| John Hasbrouck Van Vleck | |

1976 | Burton Richter | For their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind |

| Samuel Chao Chung Ting | |

1975 | Leo James Rainwater | |

1973 | Ivar Giaever | |

1972 | John Bardeen | For their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory |

| Leon Neil Cooper | |

| John Robert Schrieffer | |

1969 | Murray Gell-Mann | For his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions |

1968 | Luis Walter Alvarez | For his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis |

1967 | Hans Albrecht Bethe | For his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars |

1965 | Richard Phillips Feynman | For their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles |

| Julian Schwinger | |

1964 | Charles Hard Townes | |

1963 | Eugene Paul Wigner | For his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles |

| Maria Goeppert-Mayer | For their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure |

1961 | Robert Hofstadter | For his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons |

1960 | Donald Arthur Glaser | For the invention of the bubble chamber |

1959 | Owen Chamberlain | For their discovery of the antiproton |

1956 | John Bardeen | For their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect |

| Walter Houser Brattain | |

| William Bradford Shockley | |

1955 | Willis Eugene Lamb | For his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum |

| Polykarp Kusch | For his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron |

1952 | Felix Bloch | For their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith |

| Edward Mills Purcell | |

1946 | Percy Williams Bridgman | For the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics |

1944 | Isidor Isaac Rabi | For his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei |

1943 | Otto Stern | For his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton |

1939 | Ernest Lawrence | For the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements |

1937 | Clinton Joseph Davisson | For their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals |

1936 | Carl David Anderson | For his discovery of the positron |

1927 | Arthur Holly Compton | For his discovery of the effect named after him |

1923 | Robert Andrews Millikan | For his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect |

1907 | Albert Abraham Michelson | For his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid |