|Nobel Prize History|
Nobel Prize, it is a dream award to any scientist. Every year Nobel Prize is awarding since year of 1901.
Nobel Prize Categories
Nobel Prize is given by the Nobel Prize Foundation in Stockholm, in Sweden.
History of Nobel Prize:
The man behind this Nobel Price is Mr. Alfred Nobel. Nobel Prize foundation was established in the year of 1895. Mr. Alfred Nobel was a chemist. The Nobel Price is presented in Stockholm, Sweden. Presented date is on 10th December remembrance of Mr. Alfred Nobel. 10th December is Mr. Alfred Nobel death day.
Mr. Alfred Nobel was a chemist and industrialist. Mr. Alfred Nobel was the inventor of the high explosive dynamite. Nobel wrote several wills (Bonds) in his lifetime. The last will was written on 1895. Wishing in agreement for the evil done with dynamite, Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets. From this assets, an every year presenting the money price to who wins the award of Nobel.
Nomination and selection process:
The Nobel Price process is different compared with other prizes. This selection process is long and careful. This is the main reason for why the people giving the importance to the Nobel Price. The royal Swedish academy of sciences elected the committee for the prices in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics. For the Literature, four to five members as a committee elected by Swedish academy. For the Medicine, five members as a committee elected by Nobel Assembly. For the prize of Peace, Norwegian Nobel Committee selects the candidates. This committee has 5 members elected by Norwegian storting.
The first stage in the process is, collect the data from the people as category. Those names are short-listed and discussed by experts in their specific disciplines until only the winner’s remains. The Nobel committee sends the invitations to around three thousand selected individuals and give the option to submit the nomination. The Norwegian Nobel Committee sent the list before 3rd February. The submission deadline for all the nomination is 31st January for the Physics, Chemistry, Peace and so on.
The names of the nominees are never publicly announced. After submission of the list, the nominations are screened by the committee. Then prepared the list with more than or less than two hundred candidates. This list is forward to selection team who experts in the relevant field. They filter the list around fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations to the appropriate institutions. The institution members select the winners by vote.
But the Literature price is infrequently awarded to more than one person per year, while other prices often involve collaborations of two or three. If there are two winners for particular field then that award will divided equally between the recipients. If awards winners are three members, the committee has the authority or option of dividing the prize money and grant equally maximum.
Normally committees and institutions announce the names of the laureates in the month of October, but a formal ceremony celebrates on 10th, December the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death. Generally the ceremonies celebrate in the “blue hall of the Stockholm city hall”. The Nobel Price ceremony has been held at the Norwegian Nobel Institutions from 1905 to 1946. In between the year 1947 to 1991 celebrates in Aula of the University of Oslo and recently at the Oslo city hall.
Nobel Prize medals:
The Nobel Prices are manufactured in Sweden and the mint of Norway since 1902. The trade mark also registered on the name of Nobel Foundation. The designs are internationally recognized symbols of the prestige of the Nobel Prize. On the medal, an image or photo of Alfred Nobel in the left profile on their front sides this is called face of the medal. Four of the five medals of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, and literature are same designs. The reverse side of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share a design. The Nobel Prize in all fields is identical on the face. It shows the image of Alfred Nobel, the date of birth, and the death year like 1833-1896. All the medals made before 1980 were made in 23 carat gold.
Now days they are manufacturing in between 18 to 24 carat gold. The weight of the medal is approximately 200 grams and its diameter is 66 mm. due to their content and public display the medals are theft.
Especially distinguished laureates:
Multiple laureates: four people have received two Nobel Prizes from the establishment of the Nobel Prize.