In United States the employment discrimination based on specific characteristics is totally prohibited by the both federal and state laws. According to the job discrimination law the federal government prohibits the employee discrimination on the basis of color, race, nationality, religion, age, veteran status, pregnancy, disability, bankruptcy or claims, retaliation of any individual for filing a complaint, citizenship and genetic information etc. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces these laws and has the authority to take action providing equal employment opportunity regulations, practices, and policies. As per the US job discrimination law, the discriminatory practices are prohibited in all the departments of employment including hiring and firing, transfers and promotion policies, training and job evaluation, compensation and disciplinary actions, fringe benefits and retirement plans etc.
Federal government co-ordinates with the Fair Employment practices Agencies (FEPA) of US states and localities to enforce these anti-discrimination laws effectively and protect the rights of the workers under both state and federal law.
The EPA prohibits employers to discriminate the workforce on the basis of sex in the payment of wages or benefits, where men and women perform equal skill, effort and responsibility under same working conditions.
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 made major changes in the federal laws against employment discrimination based upon the characteristics concerning terms, conditions, and privileges of employment. This job discrimination law not only protects the rights of an individual but also authorizes compensatory and disciplinary damages in case of intentional discrimination. The pregnancy discrimination Act of Title VII amended in 1978 prohibits the unlawful biasing based on the sex including childbirth and pregnancy related medical conditions.
After many amendments, the Age discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 protects individuals over 40 years of age and prohibits the mandatory retirement except for high powered decision making positions. This job discrimination law forbid the denial of benefits for older employees and has special guidelines for pension and retirement plans.
According to the Americans with disabilities Act of 1990, it is illegal to prohibit the employment of a qualified individual on the basis of disabilities such as physical or mental impairment. If the individual is eligible and satisfies all the job related requirements such as skill, education and experience, then as per the job discrimination law it is illicit to bias the employment hiring decision based on the disability.
The rehabilitation act of 1973 bans the employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in federal government or as federal contractors with contracts worth more than $10,000.
This job discrimination law enacted in 2008 forbids the employers from using the genetic information of an individual in the process of hiring, firing, promotion and training etc.