In the U.S., there are specific education laws which relate to schools and the boards of these schools responsible for educating children, even those with special needs, as well as adults. In addition to federal laws, each state in the U.S. has its own education law. That’s why you will find that rules which govern school managements and public school financing are quite different in different states.
In the U.S., the public school system takes care of education through the Department of Education. While the responsibility for maintenance and operation lies with the states, the federal government also plays its part. In fact, the National Institute of Education was created with the sole purpose of enhancing education standards.
Individual states exercise the powers provided by the constitution of the state. Many states have a State Board of Education which oversees the schooling system of the state. The stress is on equality as per the Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974. According to this education law, nobody will be denied an equal opportunity to be educated and there will be no discrimination based on sex, race, color or country of origin.
Most of the private schools in the U.S. are run by religious institutions. So the state cannot exercise much power over them. In fact, the constitution has placed restrictions on using public funds for private schools.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is a boon to children with disabilities that affect their education and performance. This education law provides for a process for evaluating the difficulties faced by such children and providing a tailor made program for their education. While the federal act applies to all states, the states can additionally have their own laws.
Home schooling is also allowed as per U.S. law, but in a few states there is a certain amount of regulation. The family or the parents are required to register with the authorities and are also required to report the child’s progress regularly.
This education law governs funding primary and secondary education. Also, this act does not allow the setting up of a national curriculum.