A civil law suit is one which falls under the purview of Federal rules of civil procedure and involves matters which arise out of disputes which are not criminal in nature. A civil suit can be started by individuals, companies or organizations and even state or national government agencies.
In United States of America, there are civil procedure defined for federal courts, state courts as well as territorial courts and like every state has right to have its own civil procedure code independent of the federal or sister state civil procedures.
The rules laid down by the government dictates the procedure for civil lawsuits and differ in each state because the codes are different in each state of US. In addition, it is governed by the case laws, constitutional rights and provisions and other statutory rules. Sometimes, a civil law suit in United States of America becomes very complicated because of several state laws and case laws brought as reference by parties involved.
In United States, most of the civil law suits never reach an end but are settled out of the court because of the complications involved. The situation is also aggravated because of confusion on the jurisdiction of the court as far as the civil law suit is concerned.
The normal process involved in a civil law suit starts with pleading where a complaint is lodged followed by pretrial discovery where each party discloses evidences and statements to support their case. After this trial starts where counter evidences and witnesses are examined and case is presented to the judge or jury as the case may be. This is followed by judgement by the court and the enforcement of the judgement. Even after the judgement, either party can appeal against the judgement at a higher court.