The UNFCCC is the author of the Kyoto protocol. The 191 members of the UNFCCC jointly prepared the protocol. They all signed the negotiation but only 189 of them have ratified it. The remaining two are the United States and Afghanistan. Apart from the members, Niue and Cooks Island have also ratified the protocol. Therefore, except Vatican City, Andorra, and the states that have no diplomatic recognition, the rest of the countries of the world are involved in the Kyoto protocol.