Which States Have Not Ratified The Kyoto Protocol?

The non-recognized states, i.e., the states that do not have diplomatic recognition as a legal country, have not been invited to participate in the protocol. Therefore, they have not ratified.

Among the member states of the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change, the United States and Russia have not ratified the Kyoto protocol. Even though all the member states signed the negotiation after it was initiated in 1997, the different states ratified the protocol between 1998 and 2010. The total number of ratified states is 191. Russia and the US are the only two states that have showed no intention of ratifying.

Among the non-members, Andorra and Vatican City were not required to sign or ratify the protocol. Both these states are observers of the convention.