The United States, a member of UNFCCC, signed the protocol on November 12, 1998. However, the federal government, to date, has not yet ratified the protocol. US government feels that ratifying the protocol would cause harm to its economy.
Afghanistan, also a member of UNFCCC, has not expressed its intention to ratify the protocol.Vatican City and Andorra are not members, but observers of UNFCCC. They were not required to sign or ratify the protocol.The states with no diplomatic recognition have not ratified the Kyoto protocol.