The United States, a member of the UNFCCC, signed the Kyoto protocol on November 12, 1998. It was during the presidency of Bill Clinton. However, the country rejected the protocol and did not participate in its negotiations, as it did not agree with the non-annex 1 aspect of the protocol. That is, the developing countries did not have any binding commitments to reduce emissions. The Bush administration was totally against the protocol, as they did not find any scientific and economic justification for the terms of the protocol. Even with the second commitment to the protocol, the country has chosen to stay out of the treaty. However, it continues to participate in the Conference of the Parties of FCCC.
Withdrawal of the United States created huge political issues and gave rise to many criticisms; it is, in fact, considered one of the reasons for the protocol being a failure.