Solar Effects

The sun goes throughout cycles of low and high activities that repeat about each eleven years. Several dark spots on Sun mark this deviation; as several sunspots amplify, so does the solar activity. The Sunspots are the sources of flares, mainly fierce events in solar system. And in the matter of minutes, a big blaze releases the million times more energetic that the leading earthquake.

Solar-Terrestrial Effects

Periodic solar activity has several effects that are relevant to us. And rays dose from vigorous particles is a sporadic hazard for the astronauts and also for electronics on the satellites. And the Geomagnetic fields turbulences may damage degrade high-tech navigation systems, disrupt communications, power systems, or form the spectacular aurora (Southern and Northern lights).  SWPC give caveat of theses procedures and persists the solar monitoring that started 400 years ago with the invention of Galileo's for telescope.

Earth-Space Activities

disrupted by geomagnetic and solar events

  • Navigation
  • Satellite operations
  • High-altitude polar flights
  • Space Shuttle and Space Station activities
  • Long-line telephone communication
  • Electric power distribution
  • Pipeline operations
  • Geophysical exploration
  • HF radio communication

Scientific Areas

studied to know about the Space Environment:

  • The Sun
  • The geomagnetic field
  • The interplanetary medium
  • Earth's ionosphere and upper atmosphere

Partial and annular eclipses

Screening the Sun for the period of partial and annular eclipses (and for the period of total eclipses outside the concise period of totality) wants the particular eye protection, or indirect screening methods. Using an appropriate filtration, the Sun’s disk can block the damaging part of sun’s rays. Sunglasses do not make screening the sun safe. Simply properly certified and designed solar filters should eternally be used for direct screening of sun’s disk.

The very safest way to outlook the sun’s disk is through indirect protuberance. And This also can be done through projecting an icon of the disk onto the white piece of card or paper using a duo of binoculars (with one of the lenses covered), a telescope, or another piece of cardboard with a diminutive hole in it (about 1 mm diameter), frequently called the pinhole camera.  And the projected icon of the Sun can be safely viewed and this mode can be used to survey sunspots, with eclipses. On the other hand, care should be taken to make sure that no one looks through projector (pinhole, telescope etc.) directly.

In the fractional eclipse course one will not be capable to see the impressive corona or almost entire darkening of the sky, however, depending on how much of the sun's disk is buried, a few darkening may be obvious. Whether 2-3 or excess of the sun is hidden, then a result can be pragmatic by which the sunshine emerges to be diffuse, as if the sky were gloomy, yet objects still shed pointed shadows.

Eye Safety during Solar Eclipses

A solar eclipse provides students a unique chance to see the natural phenomenon that depicts the vital principles of science and mathematics that are trained through secondary and elementary school. In fact, several scientists have been instigated to cram science because of seeing the total solar eclipse. The use of telescopes and pinhole cameras to detect an eclipse guides to an understanding of optics of these diplomacies.

However, if you don’t have any proper precautions then observing Sun can be harmful. The solar rays that get the surface of the Earth ranges from the ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the wavelengths longer than 290 nm to radio waves in meter range. And the tissues in eye broadcast a considerable part of rays between 380 and 1400nm to the light-sensitive retina following eye.

Exposure of retina to deep observable light causes injure to its cone cells and light-sensitive rod. The only period that the sun can be analyzed securely with the nude eye is during the total eclipse, when the Moon totally covers the disk of sun. And it is never protected to look at annular or partial eclipse and the partial phase of the total solar eclipse, without a proper techniques and equipment. Even 99% of the Sun's façade is hidden throughout the partial phases of solar eclipse; the enduring falcate Sun is still passionate adequate to source a retinal burn, although lighting levels are similar to twilight. Failure to use appropriate observing means may outcome in eternal eye damage or stern visual loss. And this can have significant unpleasant effects on career choices and earning potential, because it has been revealed that the human beings who maintain the eclipse-related eye injuries are kids and young adults.

The Sun can be viewed instantly when filters particularly intended to defend the eyes are used. The most these filters have a thin sheet of aluminum or chromium alloy deposited on their surfaces that assuaged both observable and near-infrared rays. A secure solar filter should broadcast less than 0.003% (density~4.5) of observable light (380 to 780 nm) and no more than 0.5% (density~2.3) of near-infrared rays (780 to 1400 nm).

Despite these precautions, the total segment of an eclipse can and should be analyzed without any filters at all. The nude eye sight of totality is not only totally safe, it is really and overpoweringly awe-inspiring!

Safe eclipse viewing techniques

Warning: Enduring eye damage can effect from looking at the disk of the Sun in a straight line, or with binoculars, or through a camera viewfinder, or a telescope even when only a thin semi-circular of the Sun or Baily's Beads remain. And 1% of the Sun’s façade still observable is approximately 10,000 times brighter than the full moon. Looking intently at the Sun under such conditions is like using the magnifying glass to center sunlight onto the tinder. Unless you have an ample eye protection, you never gaze at the sun outer of the total segment of an eclipse.
Once the Sun is totally eclipsed, though, its dazzling surface is concealed from view and it’s totally secure to look straightly at entirely eclipsed Sun avoid of any filters. Really, it is considered one of the best sights in nature.

Solar Filters

The second technique for screening the Sun securely is through looking at it directly through specially intended solar filter. These type of filters allow the miniscule part of the Sun's radiance to traverse them.

One type of filter is made of aluminized polyester. Be careful, though, that polyester, a plastic, comes in a variety of thicknesses and diverse coatings. You require a metal coating to defend your eyesight and you require examining the Polyester for the small holes that could permit unfiltered sunlight to arrive at your eyes and harm them. And a good solar filter will permit you to appear contentedly at thread of a high-intensity thrilling lamp.

And the 2nd type of solar filter is made from the black polymer which provides an orange/yellow shade of the Sun which is more pleasant than bluish color seen with aluminized polyester filters. Moreover filter type is entirely safe provided that it has a visual thickness of 5.0 or more. It means that mere 0.01% of Sun's light can traverse the filter.