Hysterectomy is a surgical process used to remove the uterus. The uterus is the place which forms the platform for a baby’s growth when a woman is pregnant. In hysterectomy, the whole uterus or sometimes a part of it is removed. As a result women won’t be having any menstrual periods after this surgery and pregnancy is not possible.
It is performed by especially skilled gynecologists. Let us go back to the history of its evolution. A physician called the "Soranus of Ephesus" has described about hysterectomy in his writings in 120 AD. At that time, there were a few successful cases too. But there were no antibiotics and women were given painkillers to overcome the pain. Many attempts were unsuccessful due to hemorrhage and sepsis.
But these days, hysterectomy has become a common as well as simple surgery. Hysterectomy is performed in different ways. Abdominal incision is the oldest technique available. Vaginal hysterectomy is also performed nowadays through the vaginal canal. Laparoscopic vaginal hysterectomy is the latest technique which is done using inserting small additional instruments through a small hole closer to navel.
Hysterectomy is done because of several reasons.
To avoid the risk of reproductive system cancers.
Due to severe growth of the uterine lining outside the uterine cavity, if every other option is exhausted hysterectomy is advisable.
To avoid chronic pelvic pain.
In severe cases of placenta praevia or placenta percreta.
In case of uterine fibroids, when the medicines fail to rescue.
For different vaginal prolapsed issues.
There are different types of hysterectomies, but mainly three are common. These types are defined as per the removal of the parts in each hysterectomy method.
Total Hysterectomy: In this method, the complete uterus and the cervix are alienated. This is a very commonly done hysterectomy.
Partial Hysterectomy: In this, the upper section of the uterus is removed, but the cervix will not be removed. In certain cases of problems affecting a particular part, it can be used.
Radical Hysterectomy: This method is used in case of cancers. This involves the removal of the uterus along with the cervix. The upper portion of the vagina and the surrounding tissues are also removed in this case to avoid the spread of cancer to other areas.
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