Tuberculosis ( A18.4+ )

About Tuberculosis:

Tuberculosis is a deadly disease which can cause death. There was no treatment in the earlier days for this deadly disease but later many preventive treatments and precautionary medicines have been initiated.  Tuberculosis is also called as Mycobacterium tuberculosis which attacks the lungs but the infection is likely to spread to other part of the human body. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease and it can be spread through cough, sneeze, or spit.

It has been observed that one third of the world's population is infected with tuberculosis and most importantly, the surprising fact is the occurrence range of this infection is about one per second. The main reason of rapid increase in the rate of occurrence of this disease is population growth. The impact of tuberculosis has been seen mostly in the developing countries as the rate of occurrence is still in progress at a faster speed.

Symptoms of Tuberculosis:

The most important and common symptoms of tuberculosis is a chronic cough with blood-spotted sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss and the victim of this disease rapidly turns pale.  However, these are the common symptoms if the disease occurs in the lungs but there are many varieties of symptoms if the disease occurs in the other parts of the body. There are some other important symptoms for pulmonary tuberculosis which occurs in the lungs, those are - chest pain, coughing up blood, blood-spotting, continuous cough for more than four weeks. Some other systemic symptoms are there which include fever, unbearable chills, sweating at night, and sudden loss of appetite, losing weight, pallor, and complete exhaustion feeling. Tuberculosis directly attacks the central nervous system and hence it is very dangerous as it can cause death.

Treatment of Tuberculosis:

The main treatment of tuberculosis is to kill the bacteria. However, effective treatment for tuberculosis is still a problem because there are some unusual structures and chemical compositions of the mycobacterial cell wall and the drug which are used for killing tuberculosis turn ineffective because the mycobacterial cell wall prevents the entry of other drugs. There are two most common antibiotics which are isoniazid and rifampicin. However, TB requires longer duration of treatment to kill all bacteria from the infected areas by the drug. However, it is really a complex system as the body should resist power. On the other hand, the best treatment of TB is to avail with combinations of several antibiotics but it can be harmful.

The most common drugs which are used for the treatment of Tuberculosis are -

  • Isoniazid
  • Rifampin
  • Pyrazinamide
  • Ethambutol
  • Amikacin
  • Ethionamide
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Para-aminosalicylic acid
  • Streptomycin

Causes of Tuberculosis:

The cause of tuberculosis is a tiny aerobic non-motile bacillus and though it is tiny initially it turns deadly later. Soaring lipid content of this pathogen reports for many of its exclusive clinical characteristics which separates every 16 to 20 hours but it is in very slow rate initially compared to other bacteria but the it creates deadly sense to the human body.

Tuberculosis Types:

Tuberculosis is commonly known as disseminated TB and it is also called as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, pathogenic mycobacteria include Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium avium and M. kansasii which are assumed as the foremost deadly diseases.

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