1200–1300 in Fashion
1200–1300 in Fashion: General Trends
In western countries clothing during 1200 to 1300, i.e. the thirteenth century, was very simple for both the genders. Clothing of men and women were quite similar and the process of change in fashion was very slow. The fashion for people outside the upper class was not changed since three or four previous centuries. But thirteenth century witnessed significant changes in coloring and working of wool. During that period, wool was the most essential material for external wear.
For rich people color was very much important. The blue color was introduced in that period and gained popularity as Kings of France adopted it as their heraldic color.
1200–1300 in Fashion: Men's Clothing
During 1200 to 1300, men’s clothing mainly consisted of a tunic, cote or cotte with a surcoat over a linen top. Cyclas was one of the surcoats that started as a rectangular shaped cloth. Over the period the sides of the cloth were stitched to get a lengthy, sleeveless tunic. The hood was also added to the cyclas sometimes. After the sleeves and hood were added to the cyclas, it turned out to be a ganache (a cap-sleeved surcoat, generally viewed with covering of harmonizing color) or a gardcorps (a long, fairly-sleeved nomadic robe, resembling a contemporary academic dressing gown to some extent).
Men were also wearing a cloak as a formal wrap. They were seen wearing hose, shoes, and headdress too.
Clothing of Royal men included comfortable fabric and lavish furs. Their shoes were a little pointed and designed with embroidery for monarchs and higher class people.
1200–1300 in Fashion: Women’s Clothing
Women in thirteenth century used to wear clothes reserved in nature. Mostly it was a floor length, loose gown, with long, tight-fitting sleeves and a narrow belt. Women wore the cyclas or sleeveless surcoat over it.
Women belonging to wealthy class were seen wearing more embroidered, and the cloak, held in place by a thread across the chest, sometimes lined with fur.
Like men, hose and leather shoes were worn by women too.
1200–1300 in Fashion: Working Clothes
As per the monuments based on thirteenth century, working men were seen wearing a short-length cotte with a belt. It had a cut in the central part of the front with the intention that they could insert the corners into the belt to feel free while working. They used to wear long braies or leggings with legs of different lengths.
Hats were used in different size and shape like a round cap with a slight edge, the beret, the coif, the chaperon and the straw hat. People, who work as blacksmith, goldsmith etc., wore an apron and a rough cloth was tied round the neck to contain the seeds meant for sowing. No other separate cloth was worn for working.
1200–1300 in Fashion: Hairstyles
Lengthwise, hair and beard of men, in 1200 – 1300 periods, was moderate. Men were seen with hair in ‘pageboy’ style, curling below at necklength.
One typical part of 13th century women's headwear was the barbette. It was a chin band to which a hat or a variety of other headdress could be fastened. This hat could be a "woman's coif", which resembled a pillbox hat, strictly simple or fluted.
The women used to cramp their hair with a net known as a crespine or crespinette. The hair was noticeable only at the back portion. In the later part of the century, the barbette and coif were condensed to thin strips of cloth. The hairstyle often seen covered with the crespine looked bulky above the ears.
While the coif and barbette were white in color, crespine might be colorful or gold. The nuns, older women and widows continued to use the wimple and veil of the 12th century.