A rock garden or an alpine garden is a kind of garden featuring comprehensive use of rocks and stones along with plants found in rocky environments.
Nonetheless the use of rocks as symbolic components in gardens have been the history of Chinese and Japanese gardens, rock gardens dedicated to nurturing alpine plants. In the age of the great plant explorers (in the 1800s) there was immense interest in the exotic findings being brought to England, and people aspired to grow these new plants. Reginald Farrer wrote in his book “The English Rock Garden” which was published in the 1919 in two separate editions that explained the gardening world for the first time.
But in the early 1900s, when there was cheap labor, gardening was restricted to the wealthy and to institutions like botanical gardens. It's difficult to imagine the efforts that went into building a big rock garden without any help of modern devices.
Rock garden plants are small as many of the species are by nature small, so as not to cover up the rocks. They may be planted in troughs or in the ground. The plants will generally be of such types that survive in well-drained soil and less water.
The usual structure of a rock garden is a heap of rocks, large and small, tastefully arranged, and with small space between, where the plants will take its root. Some rock gardens also accept bonsai.
Some rock gardens are designed and it’s architecture being done similar to natural outcrops of bedrock. Stones are placed in a line to showcase a bedding plane and plants are grown to conceal the joints between the stones. Such type of rockery was famous in Victorian times, often built by professional landscape architects. The same type of concept is often facilitated in modern campus or commercial landscaping, but these are also prevalent in smaller private gardens.
The Japanese rock garden, in the west is usually considered as Zen garden, is a specific kind of rock garden with almost no plants. India’s rock garden in Chandigarh, spread over an area of forty-acre, it is entirely constructed of home and industrial waste items.