Persian garden's purpose was, and still is, to offer a place for safe relaxation in a diverse manner: leisurely, spiritual (such as rendezvous with friends), most importantly a paradise on earth. “Enclosed Place” in Persian term means pairi-daeza, a word that was taken up by Christian mythology to explain the Garden of Eden or heaven on earth.
The garden's layout was formal and casual with focus on nature, following several general design methods. This allows an optimization, in terms of emotion and function, of what may be witnessed in the garden.
Persian gardens were constructed as early as 4000 BCE. Decorated pottery of contemporary time showcases the common cross plan of the Persian garden. The layout of Cyrus the Great garden, erected around 500 BCE, is witnessed today.
Sunlight and its impact was prominent part of structural design in Persian gardens. Textures and shapes were particularly chosen by architects to exploit the light.
The dry heat shade is important in gardens. Trees and trellises greatly features as biotic shade; walls and pavilions are also important in inhibiting the sun.
Water found important place due to heat prominence in Persian Gardens. A type of underground tunnel beneath the water table (qanat), irrigates the garden. Well-like construction connects to the quant, helping the drawing of water.
The Persian gardeners had a great sense of architecture who constructed these gardens according to strict plans, specific sketch and skillful engineering.
The Persian garden architecture is the fusion of Iranian philosophy and elements of gardening in different historical periods. The history of Persian garden architecture can be segregated into four durations, Persian prehistoric garden architecture, from the span of Medes to the end of Sassanians, contemporary architecture and current time architecture which is Islamic period of Persian garden architecture. The Taj Mahal is one of greatest exemplification of world Persian gardens.