Eye Deceases

(H52.1) Myopia

Myopia Introduction

Myopia is a state of visual defect in which the far-off objects look to be blurred. It is also called short sight. On the contrary, people with myopia can have a perfect look of nearby objects. Contact Lens and Laser surgery can help in setting right the problem of myopia. It is not hereditary in nature but can be caused due to excessive reading and close work. Higher myopia in a person ends up in developing cataract at an early stage in one’s life.

One-third of the population across the globe is vulnerable to the disease of myopia. A recent study suggests that myopia is more prevalent among the Americans than it was a case 30 years back. Generally, Nearsightedness is often noticeable in school-going children or teenagers. The vision in a patient gets worsened when glasses with minus power lenses, prescribed by uncaring doctors, are put on by an eye-sighted person. In rare instance of cases, myopia has the potential danger of causing retinal detachments.

Symptoms of Myopia

A shortsighted person is able to view the close-up objects clearly, but objects in the distance take a dim view. Squinting enables one to have a lucid picture of far-off objects.

During the growth stages of a child, nearsightedness gets worse. People who are nearsighted are constantly required to change their glasses or contact lenses.

The common symptoms are as under:

  • Eyestrain
  • Headaches (uncommon)
  • Difficulty in reading the blackboard in school or signs on a wall Holding books very close when reading
  • Watching the television from a close distance

Myopia Treatment

There is absolutely no way to prevent the condition of Myopia. The most appropriate option to correct myopia is Laser surgery. Wearing eyeglasses or contact lenses can facilitate in shifting the focus of the light image directly onto the retina, thereby producing a clearer image. During the earlier times, dilating drops were given to the ones who were hit with myopia. But over a period of time they have proved to be not a viable option to continue with.

What causes Myopia?

If either of the two eyes is too long, then that could result in having a myopic problem. It affects male and female population alike. In Singapore, myopia amongst school-going kids has touched an alarming percentage of 75%. Environmental factors tend to stir up the case of myopia. Prolonged reading, sitting for a long period in front of the computer screen can be the added weighing factors for getting myopia.

ICD-10 H52.1
ICD-9 367.1
DiseasesDB 8729
MeSH D009216

Types of Myopia

There are three types of myopia such as:

  • Simple Myopia: It is the most common type of myopia which is characterized by an eye that is too long for its optical power. Both genetic and environmental factors, coupled with significant amount of near work, are perceived to be the causes of developing simple myopia.
  • Degenerative Myopia: Degenerative myopia is evidenced by marked fundus changes such posterior staphyloma. It is also known as malignant, pathological, or progressive myopia. This form of myopia can progress into a bigger stage over a period of time. Degenerative myopia is the main cause of visual impairment. Degenerative Myopia is quite common among the races of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Arab, White, and Jewish people.
  • Induced: Greater exposure to the environment involving pharmaceutical products, nuclear sclerosis leads one to get the induced myopia. Sudden increase in glucose levels is yet another factor, which could result in taking shape as the induced myopia. It is also known as the acquired myopia.