Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system inflammatory, chronic and degenerative disease that affects nerves in the brain and spinal cord. Myelin is the fatty substance that surrounds, insulates and protects the nerves and allows conduction of nerve impulses. Myelin sheath is the initial target of inflammatory damage in multiple sclerosis. This damage slows along or blocks communication between the brain and the body. Myelin sheath damage leads to the symptoms of Multiple sclerosis.
Multiple sclerosis is the main neurological cause of debilitation in teenagers. As per the numbers reported by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 250,000–350,000 people in the United States suffer from Multiple Sclerosis. Northern parts of Europe, United States, southern parts of Australia, and New Zealand have the highest frequency of people with Multiple Sclerosis disorder.
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by discontinuous harm to myelin which is called as demyelination. Demyelination results scarring and sclerosis of the nerve tissue of the spinal cord, brain, and optic nerves. Demyelination reduces the conduction of nerve impulses, outcome of which is weakness, lack of sensation, ache, and vision impairment.
Different nerves are affected diversely; Multiple sclerosis symptoms frequently get worse and expand to various parts of the body. Patients with the Multiple sclerosis disorder have a normal lifespan.
Multiple sclerosis is popular in females. The onset of the disease usually occurs between 20 to 40 years of age. However the disorder can develop at any age. The children of people who are suffering from multiple sclerosis have higher chances of incidence.
Preliminary symptoms of the Multiple sclerosis disorder may include some symptoms of modifications in vision such as blurred vision and blind spots. The other symptoms are numbness, prickling sensations, giddiness, and difficulty with synchronization, difficulty in thinking, memory loss and balance and weakness in muscles.
Multiple sclerosis might develop gradually or cause acute attacks and reduce the symptoms moderately or fully. Symptoms differ according to the location and rigorousness of every attack can be different.
Fever, exposure to sunlight, and stress can trigger or worsen attacks.
Multiple sclerosis can return and may persist to get worse lacking the remission period.
Muscle symptoms of multiple sclerosis are loss of balance, muscle spasms, lack of sensation, difficulty in moving arms or legs, difficulty in walking, difficulty with synchronization and involving small movements, tremors in limbs or arms, weakness in muscles.
Bowel and bladder symptoms in multiple sclerosis are constipation, less urination and irritation, frequent urination.
Eye symptoms observed in multiple sclerosis are uneasiness in eye, double vision, unmanageable eye movements, vision impairment, blinking of eye and pain in eyes.
Brain and nerve symptoms seen in multiple sclerosis are loss of memory, difficulty in thinking, reasoning and unable to solve problems. Sometimes depression, giddiness and hearing loss also occurs.
Speech associated symptoms of multiple sclerosis include difficulty to speak, problem in chewing and also swallowing. As Multiple sclerosis gradually develops its common symptom is fatigue which seems to increase in the afternoon.
Treatment for the multiple organs involved in the disease depends on the symptoms. Physical therapy, speech therapy, assisted help such as wheel chairs; exercise schedule, good nutrition, rest and relaxation are some measures to be taken. Preventing fatigue, temperature rise and illness must be avoided.
Taking precautions by making changes in the home to avoid falls due to multiple sclerosis.
Researchers are uncertain of what accelerates the inflammation. The popular theories show virus or genetic defect, may be combination of both. Geographic studies compare cause of multiple sclerosis with involvement of environmental factors.
Multiple sclerosis is differentiated in regards with the occurrence and harshness of neurological symptoms, the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to improve, and the increase of damage.
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis causes increases gradually of symptoms with little periods of remission.
Relapsing-Remitting multiple sclerosis causes aggravation of symptoms that occur with ever-increasing frequency, along with periods of remission.