Mitral valve regurgitation, also termed as mitral regurgitation, is a medical condition in which the mitral valve leaflets do not seal tightly. This defect in the valve enables blood to flow backward in the heart and is generally termed as a leaking heart valve.
When the mitral valve starts functioning improperly, blood does not flow properly through the heart and body. Mitral valve regurgitationis also said to be mitral insufficiency. The condition - which can be the resultant of mitral valve prolapsed - often the patient feels tired and breathe shortness.
Significant Mitral Valve Regurgitation leads to mass overload of the left ventricle, as it has to bear both the stroke volume and regurgitant volume with each heartbeat. In response, the left ventricle dilates and becomes hyperdynamic. In severe mitral regurgitation, the pressure on left atrial and pulmonary venous enhances rapidly, resulting to pulmonary congestion and pulmonary edema. In chronic MR, an intensification in left atrial volume and compliance compensate in maintain the pressure on left atrial and pulmonary venous until later stage of the disease. Increasing left ventricular dilation ultimately leads to an increase in consequent load, contractile dysfunction, and heart collapse. In long run MR, patients may experience pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart collapse.
Purpose of Mitral Valve Regurgitation is to heal the patient and revert back the right functioning of the heart valves. Surgery for MR is suggested when the patient have signs of heart failure, or when the expulsion rate drops below 60% and/or the left ventricle is enlarged than 40 mm at rest. Both valve repairs and replacement are usually a open-heart surgeries.
There are three types of mitral valve disease which may include
Mitral Valve Prolapse.
Mitral stenosis (MS) is witnessed when the mitral valve orifice narrows leading to resistance of filling of the left ventricle in diastole. It is generally caused by rheumatic heart disorder. Less common reasons include severe stiffness of the mitral annulus, infective endocarditis, rheumatoid arthritis, and carcinoid heart disirder.
Mitral Regurgitation is leakage of discharge of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium during systole. It occurs by several mechanisms pertaining to structural or functional impairment of the adjacent myocardium, mitral apparatus, or both. The most general causes of mitral regurgitation in the US are chordal rupture, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disorder, coronary artery disease etc.
Mitral valve prolapse is the rhythmic contraction of the heart of one or both mitral leaflets into the left atrium during systole. It may also be witnessed in the setting of myxomatous valve disorder or in persons with normal mitral valve leaflets.
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