Microphthalmia is a disorder in which the eye(s) that commenced to form during the pregnancy period is terminated due to some factors giving the infant small eyes. The size of the eye may change for every child. In case of mild cases of Micropthalmia, it is not possible to mark the change. Otherwise it is very obvious. At the worst of the ordered series is extreme microphthalmia which is really as similar as some kinds of anophthalmia. Differentiating between extreme microphthalmia and anophthalmia in these cases can be accomplished by analyzing particularly stained tissue under a microscope but this type of diagnosis isn’t generally of practically important.
Lenz Microphthalmia syndrome is a really rare inherited disorder featured by unnatural littleness of one eye or both the eyes (unilateral or bilateral microphthalmos) and droopy eyelids (blepharoptosis), ensuing visual impairment. In uncommon cases, involved infants may demonstrate complete absence of the eyes (anophthalmia). Most of the affected infants also demonstrate delayed developments physically and mental retardation which can vary its severity from mild to severe. Extra physical abnormalities are frequently associated with this condition are unusually small head (microcephaly) and/or malformations of the teeth, ears, and/or fingers and/or toes (digits). The array and rigorousness of findings may vary from case to case.
Microphthalmia can be identified with obvious symptoms as smallness of one eye or both the eyes.
Genetic mutations and abnormality in chromosomes can lead to Microphthalmia. According to the researchers, some environmental factors increase the chances of the disorders such as anophthalmia and microphthalmia. They are exposure to X-rays, harmful radiations, toxic agents, chemicals, pesticides, drugs and some viruses.
But sometimes the cause of anophthalmia and microphthalmia may not be interpreted.
Usually, there is no treatment that will restore the vision or form a new eye to the children with severe anophthalmia or microphthalmia. If the microphthalmia is mild, medical or surgical treatments may be useful. Appearance of affected children can be improved from mild to severe cases of micropthalmia. Artificial eye can be fixed to help the growth of the socket and for cosmetic use.
Thorough examination of eye and consultations of various specialized people is essential for the infant born with anophthalmia or microphthalmia. Specialized consultants in pediatrics, vitreoretinal disorders, surgeries like orbital or oculoplastic, genetics of ophthalmic and many prosthetic devices used for eye. Opinions of all of these consultants are valuable for the possible treatment of micropthalmia in the new born child. An infant with anophthalmia may also require using expanders along with conformers to broaden the socket of the eye. After the complete development of the face, prosthetic eyes can be prepared and positioned in the eye socket. But unfortunately, prosthetic eyes may not restore vision.