Macular Degeneration

Eye Deceases

(H35.3) Macular Degeneration

Information on Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration deteriorates the macula, the central portion of the retina. The retina is a tissue, thin like paper and it is positioned at the back section of the eye. The brain gets visual signals through retina. Macula processes sharp, clear, straight-ahead vision. The damaged caused to the macula leads to the blind spots and distorted sight. People who are affected by the Macular degeneration find it difficult to accomplish routine activities like driving and reading. People aged 50 or more normally get affected by the Macular degeneration.

Symptoms of Macular Degeneration

  • The following are the symptoms of macular degeneration:
  • Distance vision is blurred
  • Blind spots or scotomas
  • Metamorphopsia (Straight lines look irregular or bent)
  • Same object appears in different color and shape in each of the eyes
  • Swelling and bulging in the macula

Causes of Macular Degeneration

The following are some of the causes of Macular degeneration:

  • Age
  • Smoking
  • Family History in macular degeneration
  • Gender (Mostly females are diagnosed with macular degeneration)
  • Exposure to sunlight for a longer time
  • Intake of high fat diet
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension
  • Color of the eye (persons with light-colored eye are affected by macular degeneration)
  • Inactiveness
  • If macular degeneration is present in one eye, it affects the other one

Types of Macular Degeneration

Types of macular degeneration can be listed as below:

  • Wet macular degeneration
  • Dry macular degeneration
  • Age related macular degeneration (AMD)

There are some hereditary types of macular degeneration and those can be listed as below:

  • Vitelliform (Bests)
  • Fundus Flavimaculatus (Stargardts)
  • Central Areolar Choroidal atrophy
  • Cone degeneration

Treatment of Macular Degeneration

Prevention of disease progression and safeguarding of visual acuity can check the macular degeneration. Intake of nutritional diet, anti-oxidants and zinc checks the complication of the disease. The patient should stop smoking to get macular degeneration in control.
The persons who have got habituated with following things may prevent macular degeneration:

  • Magnifiers for reading
  • Telescopes attached into specifically designed glasses to see distant objects
  • Talking watches
  • Computers with large type faces or talking feature
  • The patients should be advised to make use of the peripheral vision that is not affected by the macular degeneration

Medical treatment for Macular degeneration could be done with Antioxidants, Laser treatment, Photodynamic therapy and the drugs which obstruct the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).