Eye Deceases

(H18.6) Keratoconus

About Keratoconus:

Keratoconus is a degenerative turmoil of the eye which has structural changes in the cornea. When the disease grows it turns to more conical shape than its normal gradual curve. Keratoconus is likely to cause extensive deformation of vision with multiple images and linings. This disease can develop sensitivity to the bright light. The name of the disease is derived from the Greek language as it means ‘horn shaped’. This disease turns very severe in a person in their twenties and thirties. Keratoconus can affect both the eyes and therefore the weakening in vision can affect the patient's ability to drive or read usual print. Surgery can be also useful to treat this disease if it further develops. Although the cause of this disease is still unknown however, it has been expected that the association of detrimental enzyme activity within the cornea is highly prone to infect with Keratoconus. Doctors also accept to have the link of genetic transmission of this disease.

ICD-10 H18.6
ICD-9 371.6
OMIM 148300
DiseasesDB 7158
MedlinePlus 001013
eMedicine oph/104

Symptoms of Keratoconus:

Blurring vision is the most typical symptom of Keratoconus as it is uncertain in the early stage of this disease but when it grows the patients can understand its infection gradually. However, symptoms of keratoconus are alike with some other similar eye diseases but the foremost symptoms which are not similar to other eye diseases is vision deterioration in speedy way. Infected people eventually encounter with impaired visual acuity at all distances and poor night vision. Sometimes the infected people encounter with worse of vision on his/her one eye than the other. Photophobia is also one of the most important symptoms of this disease. Itching of the eyes is quite common symptom of keratoconus. However, feeling of pain is somewhat lesser than other eye diseases.

The primary symptom of keratoconus feeling the appearance of multiple 'ghost' images in front of the infected people. This type of symptom is called as monocular polyopia. When the background is very dark then this kind of symptom is experienced by the infected people.

Treatment of Keratoconus:

  • Contact lenses are one of the good treatments of keratoconus which provide rigid gas permeable lens. Rigid gas permeable lens can give a good level of visual improvement.
  • Corneal transplantation is also a good treatment for Keratoconus as this treatment can resolve the multiple reflection of corneal defect.
  • Corneal ring segment inserts is also considered a good treatment. Corneal ring segment inserts can carry out on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia and therefore patients should not fear.
  • Eliminating corneal epithelium at the time of CCR operation on an eye with post-LASIK impediment with corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin can be also helpful.
  • Radial keratotomy is a refractive surgery procedure is done which can cure the eye in a speedy way.
  • DALK transplants is also one way of plummeting the threat of rejection is to utilize a newer technique called a Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty and turns beneficial at most of the time.
  • Epikeratophakia is a non-penetrating keratoplasty often works very well for particular patients.

Causes of Keratoconus:

There are no specific causes of attacking keratoconus to human eyes. The attack of keratoconus is still a mystery. However, doctors have found some of the most important factors about the cause of keratoconus such as genetic and environmental or cellular. However, there is a controversy regarding the matter of the frequency of occurrence of keratoconus in close family members which is not clearly defined. According to the recent study which determines that the chance of genetic cause of this disease is only 6% to 19%. Doctors also accept that keratoconus can be associated with asthma, allergies, and eczema.

Keratoconus Types:

Some of the similar types of Keratoconus are Keratoglobus, Pellucid Marginal Degeneration and Posterior keratoconus.