What is Hernia

A hernia is a site of weakness or defect in the muscles of the stomach wall. Inter organs can push through this weak walls and get visible in the form or a bulge. Under these circumstances the patients may feel discomfort or pain at the site of hernia.

The frame of a hernia can be compared to a bulge in the inner tube of a tyre. When the tyre is damaged the inside part of the tube burst out and bulges through the opening in the tyre. Same way, when the inner layer of the stomach wall is damaged, internal parts project out through these weak sites.

The most common part to develop a hernia is in the groin where you can witness either an inguinal or femoral hernia. Groin hernias are more common as there are natural sites of weakness in the abdominal wall through which internal organs can be projected.

Another area of weakness is at the belly button. Other parts of potential weakness are the areas of previous surgery scars. 15% to 20% of individuals who have had major stomach surgery are more prone to develop incisional hernias over time. The risk increases if the surgery was complicated by a wound infection.

Most patients experience mild discomfort at the location of their hernia, specifically if they have been involved in strenuous work of lifting tasks. In majority of cases this discomfort will settle by resting or avoiding the activity that is leads to this condition.

Very often, a part of internal organ like bowel can get trapped in the hernia and this can develop to bowel obstruction or strangulation. Under these circumstances the situation the blood supply to the part of the bowel can be less and if left untreated, there is a risk of getting peritonitis and other troubles. Nonetheless, this type of complication is not very common but if you development a painful, tender swelling at the location of your hernia, or observer any developing  redness at the site, or you feel a lump associated with crampy abdominal pain and vomiting, you must visit your doctor as soon as possible as this can call for a medical emergency.

As the risk of strangulation and obstruction has been manifested in recent studies to be low, the timing of surgery can be scheduled around work commitments. Usually it is recommended that if the hernia is hindering your work or lifestyle, you must take time to fix it.

The easiest treatment is obviously laparoscopic repair of hernias as it is less painful than open surgery and enables you to resume your normal life faster than other open surgery. It is quite evident by some cases that the laparoscopic or keyhole hernia repair has been quite successful and the risk factors associated are quite less than the more traditional open hernia surgery.

Cause of Hernia/Purpose of Hernia

Nonetheless abdominal hernias can be present since birth others may develop this later in life. Some involve routes created during fetal development, current openings in the abdominal cavity, or areas of abdominal-wall deficiencies.

Any situation that enhances the pressure of the abdominal cavity may constitute the formation or worsening of a hernia.

Other causes may include

  • obesity,
  • Weight Lifting,
  • Coughing,
  • Pressurizing during a bowel movement or urination
  • Chronic lung disease, and
  • Fluid in the abdominal cavity
  • A family background of hernias can push you a step ahead of developing a hernia

Types of Hernia - Hiatal Hernia

Often there can be unusual projection of the upper part of the stomach which will push through the cavity or weakness of the stomach muscles in the Hiatal area called hiatus and into the opening of the chest or into the thorax. It may manifests symptoms like heartburn, acid reflux, chest pain, regurgitation, a burning sensation in the upper part of the stomach and identical symptoms. But in majority of cases there will be no sign to signal hernia. This pattern of hernia is called Hiatal hernia or hiatus hernia.

Umbilical Hernia

This type of hernia is almost 8% of the total quantity of hernia cases across the world and infant black babies, prominently boys are at a greater risk as are obese people or infants or middle aged people with damaged abdominal muscles and it often occurs at birth. A swelling is visible on the navel area or in the region around it (umbilicus) where the hernial patch projects through the weak abdominal walls.

Inguinal Hernia

It attacks men generally rather than women and accounts for 70% of the entire cases. In this type of hernia a part of the abdominal viscera bulges out and thrusts into the inguinal canal.

Inguinal hernia is also further divided into two types – Direct and Indirect inguinal hernias.

Femoral Hernia

Such Hernias accounts for 17% of the entire number of hernia cases. Through the femoral ring the bowel or intestine bulges out and thrusts into the front thigh.

Other Types of Hernia

It is possible to separate hernia on the basis of structural location like pelvic hernia/obturator hernia, abdominal hernia, incisional hernia, double hernia, sliding hernia, properitoneal hernia,paraesophageal hernia, littre’s hernia, intracranial hernia, brain hernia, Petit’s hernia, nucleus pulposus hernia of the intervertebral discs, diaphragmatic hernia, lumbar hernia, spinal disc herniation, velpeau hernia, sports hernia, pantaloon hernia,  spigelian hernia, epigastric hernia, cooper’s hernia etc.

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