Eye Deceases

Haemorrhagic (Acute) (Epidemic) (B30.3+)

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is an infectious eye disease having epidemic probability. It is highly contagious conjunctivitis. Historically, first evidence was found in Ghana in 1969. It was observed in 1981 when it caused four epidemics from which three in Caribbean and fourth in Puerto Rico. Then the epidemic reports came from India, China, Japan and Singapore. Epidemics of Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) are observed mostly in developing countries.

Usually the origin and spread of disease is seen in humid climate and in countries where the population is high. It is predominant in children from age 10-14 years and regardless of sex, it can infect all age groups during epidemic conditions.

Haemorrhagic Symptoms

 The symptoms are seen 24-48 hours after the infection. It starts with the pain in eyes, become red and swollen due to conjunctival hemorrhage. The sense of foreign body in the eyes is another symptom experienced by the patients. The inflammatory symptoms are the result of antibody response to the acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) infection. The discharge from the eyes is watery. The vascular dilatation and edema are also some symptoms found in acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. The progress of infection can result in follicular conjunctivitis. Severe infections can lead to corneal ulcers. In infants, the infection caused by enterovirus can show feverish symptoms. In some cases respiratory disorders are associated with conjunctivitis.

Haemorrhagic Precautions

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) prevention is important as it is highly contagious. Its spread is through eye to hand and then again hand to eye contact. The frequent washing of hands and sterilization of ocular instruments can prevent the infection from transmission. To prevent the spread in groups, sharing of bath towels and beds must be avoided. Overall maintenance of hygiene can lessen the chance of infection.

Haemorrhagic Treatment

Presently no treatment is available for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). Treatment to relieve the symptoms in patients can be done. The infection remains for 2 to 4 days and diminishes completely within 7 days. Sulfacetamide eye drops can be administered in eyes regularly four times in a day. The acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) shows no ocular sequelae and the infection limits itself after few days. So use of antibiotics and steroids must be avoided. The steroid treatment has seen to induce microbial infection in cornea. If steroids are used in treatment, proper antimicrobial therapy is required. 

Haemorrhagic Causes

According to the research using PCR techniques, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is caused by Picornaviridae family of viruses. These viruses are small positive stranded RNA viruses without the envelope a coxsackie virus AZA. The enterovirus type 70 and coxsackie A24 viruses are the most virulent types. The antibodies which are formed as a response to the infection against enterovirus 70 and coxsackie A24 viruses were found in the patients with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC).

Haemorrhagic Types

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is caused by Picornaviridae family of viruses. The most prevalent types of viruses causing this disorder are enterovirus type 70 and coxsackie A24viruses.