Fuchs' Dystrophy

About Fuchs' Dystrophy:

Fuchs' dystrophy is mainly known as Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy. Fuchs' dystrophy is a gradually progressing corneal disease which can impinge on both eyes. Fuchs' dystrophy is considered mostly as a female disease as this disease attacks mainly in women’s eye than men’s eye. The disease mostly affects at the age when people are in their 30s and 40s. However, at the early stage of this disease does not affect in much vision but if the disease prolongs to the later ages then it causes complete blindness.

The main important complications of Fuchs' Dystrophy are -

Feeling light sensitivity turns severe pain later and therefore this sensitivity is considered for main complication of this disease. Mild to severe vision loss is also very typical to diagnosis. Frequent and severe eye pain leads this disease to treat crucially.

The infection of this disease directly affects the slender layer of cells that line the rear part of the cornea. The endothelium which is the thin layer of the cornea helps pump excess fluid out of the cornea and fluid begins to develop in the cornea and that is the reason to cause swelling and make it cloudy in the cornea.

Sleeping time is crucial, as fluid tends to develop only during sleep because when sleeping eyes are closed. Most importantly, the disease turns worse and then small blisters get larger and cause eye pain. There is a chance of the shape of the cornea changing too.

Symptoms of Fuchs' Dystrophy:

The foremost symptom of Fuchs' dystrophy is getting with blurred vision but the infected person can have somewhat clear vision at the day time however, he/she will encounter blurry vision at night in the early stages of this disease. Because the cornea of the eye stays thicker in the morning so the infected person does not get the problem in vision at the day time in the initial stage of the infection but it later affects firmly in the vision.
Some of the most common symptoms of Fuchs' dystrophy are -

  • Severe eye pain
  • Feeling continuous eye sensitivity to light which turns fierce look
  • Infected person feels cloudy or blurred vision in the morning
  • Infected person feels colored halos around lights during middle of the infection
  • Getting bad vision throughout the day that develops eye irritation

Treatment of Fuchs' Dystrophy:

Mainly the usage of the topical hypertonic saline and a hairdryer to dehydrate the pre-corneal tear film to have therapeutic soft contact lenses are considered good treatments. While the usage of a hairdryer, doctors advise patients to hold a hairdryer at an arm's length to dry out the epithelial blisters. This can be done twice a day. Increased corneal edema is considered as the definite treatment for this disease. However, surgical treatments of corneal transplantation or penetrating keratoplasty are also important treatments in this regard.

There are now some new surgical modalities in the treatment of Fuchs' dystrophy. These types of surgical treatments are developed by Melles et al. in The Netherlands and these are considered great treatments as they can give good results. The name of those treatments is posterior lamellar keratoplasty or endothelial keratoplasty and endothelial keratoplasty.

Causes of Fuchs' Dystrophy:

Some of the most important causes of Fuchs' dystrophy are -

  • Degenerative turmoil of the corneal endothelium with buildup of focal excrescences
  • Condensing of Descemet’s membrane which leads to corneal edema and total blindness
  • Corneal endothelial cells in end-stage FED are abridged in number and emerge less
  • The epithelium turns edematous which causes severe visual impairment

Fuchs' Dystrophy Types:

As though there are no specific types of Fuchs' dystrophy but it is classified into 4 stages. All the four classification of Fuchs' dystrophy has early signs of guttae development to end-stage subepithelial scratching.