What is Fractured Neck of Femur

What is Fracture Neck of Femur

Fracture neck of femur is a common injury witnessed by the elderly. The fracture can be a prominent reason of morbidity in the elderly as it leads to immobilityamount most of patients.

History of Fracture Neck of Femur

Astley Paston Cooper, English Surgeon and anatomist described the intertrochanteric fracture (a type of fracture neck of femur) in his treatise of 1851. Histreatment involved bed rest, use of crutches or a cane, and then an elevated shoe. The detection and care of intertrochanteric fractures were then researched and written about by Dupuytren, Malgaigne, Velpeau, and Whitman. In 1902, Royal Whitman suggested the reduction of fractures internal rotation, abduction, and traction under anesthesia with inactivity in a spica cast stretching from the nipple line to the toes. Cannulated fixation tools enabled the surgeon to heck the position of the fixation device and add to the surgeon's tools.

Today, surgeons facilitate radiographs on an image magnifier to project and record a comfortable stable reduction of the fracture. All these improved devices andtechnologies have offered new hope and enhanced expertise level of surgeons.

Fracture Neck of Femur Types

Osteoporosis leads to thinning or weakening of the bone due to loss ofbone mass. This condition is affecting the elderly population of the society, specificallywomen. With thinner and weaker bones people with osteoporosis are at higher riskfor getting a hip fracture from even a minor fall.

To understand subtypes it is imperative to know the structure of the femur. Theupper part of the femur (thigh bone) consists of the head, the neck and twotrochanters – the greater and lesser tronchanter located like a ridge on theupper edge of the long bone.

Femoral Head Fracture

It involves the femoral head which is resultant of high degree trauma like motor accidents and sometimes lead to dislocation of the hip joint.

Femoral Neck Fracture

This is found in the neck region in between the femoral head and the greater trochanter. Fracture of the neck obstructs the blood supply to the head of the femur.

Hip Fracture or Broken Hip

The more extending the fracturedbone seems on the X- ray films the poorer the prognosis is. Is also hinders theblood supply to the head of the bone which results in loss of blood supply which may in turn leads to cell death.

This Fracture has been Classified into Four Subtypes

  • Type 1 is a permanent fracture in which there is a slight crack in the neck of the bone
  • Type 2 is prominent crack in the neck of the femur but not bone displacement
  • Type 3 is called displaced fracture with the fragments having contact amongst them. There may also be angulation or rotation of the fragments.
  • Type 4 is entirely displacement with severing all contact between the fracture fragments. In this type of fracture the chances of blood supply cut off is more suscepti

Intertrochanteric Fracture

It is the most general type of hip fracture. The prognosis for this type of fracture is quite good, particularly in a healthy patient.

Subtrochanteric Fracture

It is developed in the shaft (body) of the femur, beneath the lesser trochanter.

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