(H30.1) Disseminated Chorioretinal Inflammation
What is Disseminated Chorioretinal Inflammation?
The choroid - The choroid is a pigmented vascular layer of the globle lying between the retina and the sclera. Out of the three components of the uveal tract, it is one of them. The optic nerve starts from its base while the other two components from the uveal tract lie anterior. The actual function of the choroid is to nourish the external layer of the retina as well as assist in controlling the intra-ocular pressure. The pigment therefore absorbs the extra light to prevent reflection.
Chorioretinitis - This is an exudative and inflammatory condition of the choroid and the retina. This is mostly a response to an infection which involves many organs or it can also be limited to the eye. It can also contain vitreous, thus giving encouraging posterior uveitis. It can occur at any age.
Disseminated Chorioretinal Inflammation Causes
- Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) - This occurs commonly in young children.
- Congenital toxoplasmosis (CTP) – It is also a common occurrence in children and is likely to develop in 1-4 cases per 1000 births.
- Bacterial infections- Tuberculosis, Lyme disease, syphilis and brucellosis.
- Other viral infections- Varicella-zoster, Epstein-Barr virus and West Nile virus.
- Fungal infection- Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Fusarium spp and dimorphic fungi.
Disseminated Chorioretinal Inflammation Diagnosis
- Retinal detachment
- Intraocular foreign body
- Posterior vitreous detachment
- Macular disease
Disseminated Chorioretinal Inflammation Related Diseases
Systemic Infection - Disseminated chorioretinal inflammation can cause related problems like microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, microphthalmia, cataract, hearing defects, osteomyelitis, uveitis, enlarged spleen and liver, lymphadenopathy, carditis, dermal erythropoiesis and congenital heart disease. The infection in the immunocompromised patient can be life threatening.
Other - Systemic manifestation causes chorioretinitis like malignancy, sarcoidosis and auto-immune conditions.
Disseminated Chorioretinal Inflammation Treatment
- The treatment of disseminated chorioretinal inflammation is done by an ophthalmologist and the monitoring is done by the eye unit. The physicians will do the liaising.
- The treatment of disseminated chorioretinal inflammation will also involve antimicrobials + topical steroid treatment or basic observation. This again depends on other criteria and causative pathogen.
- The systemic disease should be either treated or completely ruled out.
- The antimicrobials that are used depend on individual situation but antivirals antibiotics, antitiberculous drugs and antifungals antihelmintics can also be used to treat.
Disseminated Chorioretinal Inflammation Complications
The disseminated chorioretinal inflammation can split into anterior chamber and the vitreous, thus developing an acute anterior uveitis.