For shared use by a number of local residents, typically in an urban setting, a communal garden is a normally formal garden. United Nation uses this term especially. Many city squares and crescents (e.g., especially in London) are maintained as communal gardens. These types of gardens are usually privately or jointly owned. The owners share the maintenance cost. These typically resemble a small public park. The access is given to residents, or it is unlocked during daytime and access is restricted by locked gates. The communal garden is designed in a way to keep people at bay, therefore it is surrounded by tall railings.
Ever since the nineteenth century, the land in Europe and the UK has been used as communal gardens. There were separate allotments for the urban working class during the year 1819 in UK, and the 1830s in Western Europe. Whatever was food was produced supplemented as a supply from families and this was a big change in the densely populated industrial cities.
Later on, an organizational and social foundation was provided by a working class gardening movement in Europe during the pre World War era. It actually developed and got promoted as a culture that emerged as a reaction to the socialist movement being carried out within different countries.
A renewed interest in community gardening as a means of food production was brought out by economic hardship imposed by the economic recession of the 1930s, followed by World War 2. ‘Victory gardens’ flourished in most urban landscapes, during World War 2.
When planning a communal garden, few things need to be considered. Scale or relative size difference is an important factor to think about. Forms are another factor to think about and it basically means the shape of any element. So in this case forms can be columnar, spreading, circular, pyramidal, weeping, etc. To contrast or harmonize each other, plants of similar type can be used. Visual interest can be added to the garden. Colour, texture and scent are other factors to consider.
While constructing a communal garden, factors like line, focus, variety and repetition must be considered.