The surgical process through which a little amount of tissue is taken out from cervix is called cervical biopsy. It is carried out to get a sample of tissue to examine the presence of cancerous or precancerous cells. The canal between the uterus and the vagina is known as cervix.
The purpose of cervical biopsy is to know about the presence of cancer or precancerous wound, polyps, or genital warts. This test is conducted after a pelvic examination or pap test where anomalous cells are noticed. A pelvic test or pap test is a normal medical examination carried out once in every one to three years to recognize cancer or modifications to the reproductive system.
Cervical biopsy is conducted through three procedures namely:
Endocervical curettage (ECC)
All these three types of cervical biopsy should be conducted by a qualified doctor. It can be accomplished either in the doctor’s own clinic or in a hospital. If necessary, a local anesthesia can be used.
During punch biopsy, a small tool is used to take a round sample out from the cervix. At least two or three samples are collected from various areas of the cervix using the instrument.
A laser is used during cone biopsy to remove a whole layer of tissue from the exterior of the cervix. In this procedure, the sample cervix becomes the sample for the test, thus providing enough substance for examination to detect the cancerous or precancerous cells.
While during endocervical curettage (ECC), a narrow instrument called curette is used to scratch the lining of the endocervical channel after insertion of it into the cervix. This portion is within the cervix and is not accessible for a visual scrutiny.