Angioid streaks were named by Knapp because of its similarity with blood vessels. In 1930, it was known that the Angioid streaks were caused due to the pathological alterations in the Bruch membrane. It is also defined as tiny breaks caused in the tissue which is filled with elastin in the retina of the eye. The appearance of Angioid streaks is like red or grey lines seen below the retinal vessels and above the choroidal. The breaks or cracks in the calcified Bruch’s membrane that is linked with the retinal pigmented epithelium.
Angioid streaks appear as blood vessels because of their size, shape.
Angioid streaks are associated with systemic disorder in almost 50% of the patients. These disorders associated mostly with Angioid streaks are systemic elastorrhexis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum and Paget’s disorder and cardiovascular diseases.
Loss of vision is moderate or less severe. It shows no significant symptoms and cannot be seen without observation of the eyes.
Diagnosis of Angioid streaks is made by ophthalmoscopic observations. The fundus image consists of the Angioid streaks is orange-red, dark red or brown depending upon the extent to which the retinal pigmented epithelium is damaged.
Salmon colored small dots are observed in patients who have pseudoxanthoma elasticum.
Some patients with Angioid streaks do complain of reduced central visual acuity and are associated with distortion and metamorphopsia.
Angioid streaks are also associated with central scotomas which rise in size if proper treatment is not given.
There is no specific treatment for the Angioid streaks. The patients having Angioid streaks should avoid work that can amplify the threat of subretinal hemorrhage.
Laser photocoagulation can help in Choroidal neovascularization associated with Angioid streaks.
Causes of Angioid streaks are not known. Angioid streaks are observed in early childhood but not seen during birth. According to the research Choroidal neovascularization is the main cause of Angioid streaks in almost 70% to 80% patients.
Angioid streaks are classified into four groups according to the disorders associated with them as