Age Related Macular Degeneration

Eye Deceases

Macular Degeneration

(H35.3) Age Related Macular Degeneration

Information on Age Related Macular Degeneration

Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD), as it is obvious from the name, is related with age and the disease occurs particularly in them who are aged 50 or above. The occurrence is rare in case of younger ones. Age related macular degeneration is a condition in which the macula degenerates. It has been the most common reason of sight loss among aged persons in the US. ARMD does not lead to total blindness by itself.

ICD-10 H35.3
ICD-9 362.50
DiseasesDB 11948
MedlinePlus 001000
eMedicine article / 1223154
MeSH D008268

Symptoms of Age Related Macular Degeneration

The following are the symptoms of Age Related Macular Degeneration:

  • The accumulation of some yellowish trash in between the retina and the choroid leads to detachment of the retina. This is known as Drusen.
  • Alteration in Pigment
  • Hemorrhaging in the eyes
  • Atrophy
  • Blurred sight
  • Decline in visual acuity
  • Hyperacuity perimetry changes in case of soggy ARMD
  • Central scotomas (shadows or missing areas of vision)
  • Loss of contrast sensitivity
  • Difficulties with sharp colors
  • Distorted Vision

Causes of Age Related Macular Degeneration

The following are the causes of Age Related Macular Degeneration:

  • Aging
  • Family history in ARMD
  • Macular degeneration gene
  • Transmutation of the ATP synthase gene
  • Hypertension
  • Cardiovascular condition (High cholesterol, obesity)
  • Intake of more fat
  • Oxidative stress
  • Mutation of Fibulin-5
  • Exposure to sunbeams (Particularly blue light)
  • Smoking
  • Deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 (H-related genes provide protection against ARMD)

Types of Age Related Macular Degeneration

There are two types of Age related macular degeneration:

  • Wet (neovascular)
  • Dry (non-neovascular)

Out of total number of patients suffer from Age Related Macular Degeneration; ten percent of them have wet AMD. This type of ARMD occurs when new vessels are formed to increase the supply of blood to retinal tissues that are deprived from oxygen. But the new vessels are fragile and they rupture easily. This causes bleeding and damage to the adjacent tissue.

Treatment of Age Related Macular Degeneration

Timely diagnosis is vital for successful treatment of Age Related Macular Degeneration. Laser photocoagulation and photodynamic therapy are the recommended for treatment of Age Related Macular Degeneration. Nutritional supplements can check the progression of ARMD. Apart from that the patients should follow following tips to prevent ARMD:

  • Monitoring the vision on a regular basis
  • Take a multi-vitamin with zinc after getting recommendation from the physician
  • Increase intake of leafy green vegetables in diet
  • Protect the eyes from direct sunlight
  • Exercise regularly