Actually the word anaesthesia comes from a Greek word meaning absence or loss of sensation. There are different types of anaesthesia for different types of operation whether as big as a heart surgery or as small as tooth extraction. The main work of anaesthesia is to block pain signals that travel through the nervous system. There are many things on which it is depends, like which type of anaesthesia will be used depending on the general health condition of the patient, type of surgery. A careful consultation with the surgeon or anaesthetist can really help to determine the type of anaesthesia that is needed by the procedure.
Thinking about operation without anaesthesia is just like thinking about some severe physical torture. We cannot avoid importance of anaesthesia. Whether the operation is big or small, anaesthesia is used. It is good for both patients and doctors. Patients can have painless surgery without any tension and doctors can do their work without any hindrance. When there is need for more extensive surgery, general anaesthesia is usually administered. Its main work is to make the patient sleep until the doctors complete their work. While this work is done, important organs like heart and kidney are monitored constantly.
It is very important for the patient to communicate his previous history of kidney, heart or lung, smoking, stroke, alcohol status, diabetes, high blood pressure, jaundice and other psychiatric problems if any, to the doctor. The medication that one is taking can either decrease or increase the level of blood loss during surgery. For example if the person is taking aspirin then it can increase the blood loss so he has to stop it few days before the surgery. If these points are kept in mind then risks can be minimized. In rare cases allergic reaction to the administered drug may occur. But the medical team is equipped to tackle any emergency. It is true that anaesthesia changes the function of heart and lungs but there are very rare events where a person lands up in major complications.
There are some minor side effects that are experienced in some of the cases but this will again depend on the surgery performed and overall health status of the individual only.
Pain and discomfort: It is usually felt in some cases but it is mild. It can be corrected by the medication used for the pain relief.
Feeling of drowsiness: This feeling is not new and it soon wears off quickly following the surgery.
Nausea and vomiting: With the newer and safer anaesthesia medicines, even these problems have minimized and complications are more likely to occur after a long anaesthesia for a major operation case.
Some other problems are chest infection, deep vein thrombosis, etc.