Osteoporosis can be caused in people above the age of 35 mainly due to deficiency in dietary supplements such as calcium, vitamin D and minerals that are required for bone health. Other reasons are reduced production of reproductive hormones such as estrogen in women and testosterone in men, physical activity, pre-existing medical conditions such as renal and intestinal ailments. Use of medications such as steroids and glucocorticoids, smoking and alcohol consumption are other lifestyle related factors.
Osteoporosis cannot be cured completely. Treatment involves change in lifestyle, including high calcium food and supplements in the diet and also increasing vitamin D intake to increase absorption of calcium in the body. Osteoporosis that affects the spine causing its collapse leading to kyphosis may have to be treated by surgical interventions such as vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty.