Tularemia is also known as rabbit fever, which is a dangerous infection caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. Normally Tularemia disease is found in animals, but human beings can also affected by the close contact with infected animals. Tularemia does not transmit from person to person. Insects like ticks, biting flies, and mosquitoes are also take a major role to spread this between human beings and animals.
Tularemia disease may also transmit through:

  • Inhalation of dried animal matter
  • Eating undercooked game
  • Skinning or dressing killed animals
  • Drinking water contaminated with animal carcasses


Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium francisella tularensis.
Humans can get this disease through:

  • A bite from an infected insects like tick, horsefly, or mosquito
  • Breathing in infected plant material
  • Direct contact with an infected animal or its dead body  (most often a rabbit, muskrat, beaver, or squirrel)
  • Eating infected meat


Symptoms usually come out three to five days after the organism is acquired, although longer incubation periods (14 days) have been reported. Patients become ill suddenly and a non specific rash may occur. Fever may be high, and may go away for a short time only to return.

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Aches and headache
  • Swollen lymph nodes

Based on the site of infection, tularemia has six symptoms:

  • Ulceroglandular (the most common type representing 75% of all forms)
  • Glandular
  • Oropharyngeal
  • Pneumonic
  • Oculoglandular
  • Typhoid

Exams and Tests:

  • Blood culture for tularemia bacteria
  • Blood test measuring the body's immune response to the infection
  • Chest x-ray
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test of a sample from an ulcer

Drugs for Treatment:

  • Streptomycin
  • Tetracycline
  • Doxycycline.
  • Gentamicin
  • Fluoroquinolones


A vaccine is suggested for people at high risk.


Tularemia disease is serious in about 5% of untreated cases, and in less than 1% of treated cases.