Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) is the associate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in United States. PPFA offers wide spectrum of reproductive health and maternal and child health solutions. Planned Parenthood Action Fund, Inc. (PPAF) is also an organization that supports the U.S. political system, sex education, and access to affordable health care services, for pro-choice legislation.
The organization was originated in Brooklyn, New York where Margaret Sanger established the country's first birth control clinic. In 1921, Sanger founded the American Birth Control League, which was rechristened to Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. in 1942. Now it has grown to 850 clinics in the United States, with a budget of almost 1 billion dollar, and provides a wide range of services to about three million people.
Causes of Teenage Pregnancy
Facts Substantiating the Teenage Pregnancy
- Lack of affection and supervision of parents’ leads to the teenage girl’s getting pregnant. A survey says that in underdeveloped countries approximately 13 million children are born to teenage girls.
- Though the teenage pregnancy is speculated to exceed the figure 90%, large percentage of it is restricted to USA and Sahara African only.
- USA tops in teenage pregnancy and teenage abortion in the world.
Elements Contributing In Teenage Pregnancy
- Anxiety - Curiosity towards sex and a desire to feel it in the company of some boys exhorts the teenage girls and get involved in doing whatever is pleasurable leading to adolescent pregnancy.
- Open Culture- Freedom to interact with opposite sex and spend considerable amount of time with them in seclusion, has resulted in teenage pregnancy.
- Frustration- Indifference on the part of parents creates a great frustration amongst the teenagers, pushing them to seek affection and love from their boy friends.
- Lack Of Sex Education- Lack of sex education, particularly to the teenage girls are the major cause of teenage pregnancy.
- Sex Abuse- Unaware of sexual results, maximum number of teenage girls opts for sex out of enjoyment that results in pregnancy.
Abstinence is refraining from sex.
How Does It Work?
Some forms of birth control are based on obstacles that refrains the sperm from reaching the egg. Others disturb the menstrual cycle (as birth control pills). With abstinence, no barriers or pills are required as the person is not involved in personal intimacy.
Birth control is a vital part of family planning and with the rate of unplanned pregnancies and proliferation of teenage sex, the many different types of birth control devices and methods should be introduced as early on to teens as possible.
The most popular and effective form of birth control remains to be the hormonal birth control which includes birth control pills, injections and patches available in the market. They are excellent devices for birth control but some people are unable to use the oral contraceptive type of birth control or don’t prefer to use them.
Talking about spermicides, there is a device called the contraceptive sponge that is like foam or sponge that is inserted into the body of the female to cover the cervix area. The foam carries sperm-killing chemicals that kill of sperms entering the body.
An urgent or emergency birth control tool, 'emergency contraceptive' is also available in the counter in most pharmacies, hospitals and private clinics.
In United States where teenaged girls bearing, keeping and raising babies are considered to be without-question acceptable, they don’t think about the alternative: adoption.
The teenaged girl, keeping her baby, may live with her parents or other adult family members. In this type of conditions there are two main setbacks - first, the "adults" will assume liability of her child; second this type of situation will create dicey situation for the child and may lead to generate animosity between the girl and the family members-- a small child who is staying with his mother's parents, grandparents, etc., will be in the confusing situation of not readily understanding who to listen to, which person to go to—under these circumstances, the child does not have clearly-demarked roles for the people who are in his life. The girl herself may find occasional disagreements surrounding authority roles-- as she is not the head of her household. She is expected to live by the adults' terms and conditions.
Drugs during pregnancy
You must not buy any drugs or medicines for yourself at a chemist, drug store or pharmacy without first getting advice from your doctor. The drug is likely to harm your baby and the doctor may be able to recommend an alternative.
Whenever you go for health advice, whether from a doctor, dentist, pharmacist or other health professional, always tell them that you are pregnant. They will then be able to give you advice based free from any possible risks to your baby against your own health needs.
You should also check with your doctor or a qualified herbalist before taking any herbal treatments or medicines. The herbal tea and fruit tea are generally safe to drink during pregnancy.
It is advisable to keep a watch on your weight gain if you become pregnant. You would have to be alert compared to a pregnant woman with normal weight. But dieting while pregnant is yet more dangerous an option. This can be life threatening for the unborn baby because it may have affected adversely on the supply of essential nutrients for the young unborn baby. A diet for pregnant woman suffering from obesity can comprised of carefully selected healthy selection of foods which would be nutritious for her as well the unborn baby and at the same time will keep a check on weight gain for the expectant mother.
Yoghurt, nuts, fruits, raisins etc can be very useful to have a healthy pregnancy apart from not preventing weight gain.
Signs of Pregnancy
The traditional first sign of pregnancy is nausea, the missed periods and achy feeling in the body. Some women feel hungry while some refrains form the sight of meal. There is no checklist to establish the early sign of pregnancy as all the pregnancies differ from individual to individual. A few sign are as under:
You may feel tired and lack of energy. This fatigue is the because of the change in hormones and body metabolism as it prepares itself to carry a new life.
Tenderness of Breasts
Hormonal misbalance causes tenderness in the breasts, swelling and soreness immediately after conception. It is the nature's way to prepare a woman for impending motherhood and fostering of the baby.
Slight Spotting Before Periods
It is a seldom but vital sign of pregnancy and happens before expected period date. This spotting or light bleeding or vaginal discharge is witnessed when the fertilized egg implants itself in the uterus.
Once the pregnancy is established maintain a weekly pregnancy checklist to record the growth and development of the embryo to babyhood. This will enable you to keep track of your expected date, baby's growth and mother's health from the very first day of your pregnancy.