Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy is a stage wherein an embryo develops in the womb of a woman. The stage of pregnancy or fertilization can be achieved when eggs of a woman comes in contact with sperms of a man. This is usually done through sexual intercourse, wherein a man ejaculates inside a woman, releasing his sperms which then get in contact with the eggs.

If a man or a woman is not able to achieve fertilization due to any medical reason, artificial insemination is done on the women, through which a man’s sperms are implanted into her vagina, thereby helping the sperms to come in contact with the eggs.

Though the actual pregnancy begins when the sperms come in contact with the eggs, it is easier to determine the Expected Date of Delivery (EDD) with the help of the first date of the Last Menstrual Period (LMP).

Generally, an embryo takes approximately nine months or 40 weeks to develop into a baby. Babies which are born before completing 37 weeks are termed pre-mature babies while those born after completing 43 weeks are termed post-mature babies.


Pregnancy can be detected by conducting blood and urine tests on the women. Urine tests will help detect the hormones generated by the fertilization and formation of placenta. These days, home pregnancy kits are also available in the market which will help you know whether you have conceived. These kits can show the result a fortnight after the fertilization has took place while one will opt for blood and urine tests only after she misses her menstruation cycle.

Symptoms of Pregnancy:
  • Every woman experiences different symptoms in different stages of pregnancy. Some of the symptoms which are commonly experienced by women are nausea or morning sickness, lower backache, fatigue, swollen breasts, swollen feet and headache. Many women get craving for a particular type of food like ice creams, sweets etc.
  • Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters – first, second and third. In the first trimester, a woman may feel nausea and cramping. Placenta is formed in the first trimester and fetus takes the shape of a human being. In the second trimester, fetus’ movement can be felt and its reproductive organs can also be seen during X-rays. In the third trimester, movement of the fetus becomes strong and all his organs are fully developed by the end of this trimester.
  • Childbirth is the method by which an infant is born. Childbirth can be achieved through natural or vaginal birth and caesarean. Vaginal birth is when a woman, with the help of contractions, manually exerts pressure for the birth of the child. In Caesarean birth, an incision is made into the woman’s abdomen and uterus to take out the baby. It is generally performed if either the infant or the mother is distressed, or if the child is in breech position, or if the child has tied umbilical cord around his neck. It is also done in cases of prolonged labor, child is too large or multiple births.
    Childbirth process can be divided into three stages:
  • Childbirth Process First stage: This stage of begins when a woman start experiencing contractions which leads to dilation or widening of cervix. This childbirthd process stage can last for several hours. Initially the duration and frequency of the contractions is less but as the time progresses, its duration and frequency increases. Active Labor begins when contractions occur after the gap of two to three minutes and last for a minute.
  • Childbirth Process Second Stage: In second stage of childbirthd process, infant with his head down is taken out from the uterus through birth canal with the help of contractions and mother’s efforts to push down. If the baby’s legs or buttocks are descending first as against the normal head first, this is called breech position. If the infant is in breech position, doctors generally recommend caesarean birth. After birth, the child is given a bath to remove blood and several tests are conducted on him to detect any kind of deformity or abnormality.
  • Childbirth Process Third Stage: In this stage of childbirthd process stage, placenta is removed from the uterus.It must be made sure that the mother’s health is taken care of as she will be very tired and weak after the delivery and also because she will have to breastfeed the baby.